1450-1750 Timeline

By: Jeremy Burns

must know dates

Ottomans capture Constantinople

1453

commanded by Mehmet II. it marked the end of the Byzantine empire

Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope

1488

First Portuguese explorer to round Africa’s southern tip

Colombus finds the Americas

1492

Lands in the Caribbean. Marks the beginning to the connectedness of the Americas

slaves begin to enter the Americas

1502

Most slaves came from Africa and went to Brazil or the Caribbean where living conditions were horrible

Martin Luther creates the 95 Theses

1517

Starts the Protestant Reformation. He challenged the Pope's authority and believed salvation lied within faith alone

Cortez conquers Aztecs

1521

Most deaths were caused by disease. the rest came from superior military technology and tactics

Pizarro defeats the Inca

1533

Most deaths were caused by disease. the rest came from superior military technology and tactics

Battle of Lepanto

1571

defeat of the Ottoman navy

Defeat of the Spanish Armada by the British

1588

Spanish attack on Britain where Britain used fire ships to destroy the entire Spanish fleet

Battle of Sekigahara

1600

unified japan. began the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate

Jamestown

1607

the beginning of English colonial rule. Jamestown was built in a naturally swampy land that was hard to live on

30 years war

1618 - 1648

A religious war that stared in Bohemia but ended up encompassing most of Europe. lead to independence of many countries

Unsuccessful Ottoman seige of Vienna

1683

Europeans stopped the Ottoman expansion at Vienna

Glorious Revolution; English bill of rights

1689

The bloodless revolution that lead to Mary and William to overthrow James II. Lead to a constitutional monarchy and the English bill of rights

Age of Exploration

beginning of the Colombian exchange

1492

Also known as the triangular trade, exchange flowed from Africa to the Americas to Europe. main goods were sugar, rum, molasses, and slaves

Portuguese enter Indian Ocean

1497 - 1542

set up a trading post empire through military techniques and cannons. Portuguese goods were inferior to Asian goods

Vasco de Gama lands in Calicut India

1498

The Portuguese realized that their goods were inferior here and began their trading post empire

Vasco de Balboa goes to Pacific through Panama

1513

The first time a European has come across the Pacific Ocean

Ferdinand Magellan sailed from the Atlantic to the Pacific

1519 - 1522

showed that Europe could and would become the masters of the sea. Magellan died on the voyage

East India Company

1600

British joint-stock company in Asian products

seven years war

1754 - 1763

A war between the French and the British

Early modern Europe

Spain

1400

unified when Isabella and Ferdinand married

Gutenburg is first to use movable printing

1439

The printing press was used widely for mainly religious purposes as shown in the Protestant reformation

France

1450 - 1750

Kingdom of Europe that was strong in Absolute monarchies

Holy Roman Empire

1450 - 1648

catholic Empire in Europe that was ruled by the Pope. destroyed after the 30 years war

Portugal

1450 - 1750

First Europeans to jump off the edge and explore the Oceans

England

1450 - 1750

An influencing power in Europe with a dominant navy

Spanish Inquisition

1492

Rough tactics that converted Spain back to Catholicism

beginning of he Protestant reformation

1517

Martin Luther stated his problems with the Catholic church and printed it out using the printing press. A lot of people took this new form of Christianity and ran with it

John Calvin starts Calvinism

1536

Believes strongly that God has already decided everyone's destination after death; also known as predestination

Copernicus develops the heliocentric model

1543

Challenged the Greek geocentric model of the solar system. Copernicus stated that the sun was at the center of the universe

Catholic counter reformation

1545 - 1563

Made Catholicism more appealing by abolishing indulgences and giving the Pope more power, all through the Council of trent

Loyola sails to Canary islands

1582

Loyola creates the society of Jesus (Jesuits)

Galileo improves the telescope

1609

He made many discoveries like moons on distant planets. HE DID NOT INVENT THE TELESCOPE

Age of Enlightenment

1650 - 1700

A period of European history that was centered on the belief that the universe was governed by laws and human reason would discover these laws

Thomas Hobbes write Leviathon

1651

Strong believer that Absolute monarchies were the only way to rule a state correctly

Louis XIV

1661

A french monarch who strongly believed in absolutism and had full power over France

Beginning of the Russian empire

1721

Started due to the defeat of the Mongols in the 1400's. late to Westernization

beginning of the rule of Catherine the Great

1762

Continued Peter's goal of westernizing Russia and expands the territory significantly

Voltaire writes his concerns

1773

Voltaire strongly believed that people were entitled to their own opinions

Colonial Americas

Treay of Tordesillas

june 7 1494

The Pope said that the Americas belonged to the Spanish (except Brazil) and everything in Asia that was unconquered belonged to Portugal (except the Philippines)

Montezuma dies

1520

Welcomes Spanish as gods but then killed

Atahualpa is executed

1533

He was the last Incan ruler

Quebec is settled

1534

A French City in Northern America that was a large fur destination

Early Modern Africa

Sunni Ali

1464 - 1492

Brought the Songhay empire to its highest point

end of the Songhay empire

1591

The Songhay empire was a Muslim African empire

Early Modern East Asia

Beginning of the Ming Dynasty

1368

China is ruled by the Chinese again and practice neoconfucianism. strong opposition to anything Mongolian in China. reversed all signs of Mongolian rule,created the Forbidden City

Voyages of Zheng He

1405 - 1433

Sponsored by emperor Yongle and was aimed at gaining more tributary states. ended because the Chinese council found it unnecessary and needed to spend money on Northern invasions

Rangaku

1641

Dutch learning of westernization in Japan

start of Qing dynasty

1644

Manchurian rule. The last Chinese imperial dynasty

end of Ming dynasty

1644

Lost rule to the Manchurians

Kangxi

1661 - 1722

Qing ruler who expanded China and practiced Confucianism

Qianlong

1735 - 1796

Descendant of Kangxi and expanded China. Made Vietnam, Burma, and Nepal vassal states

Muslim gunpowder empires

Mehmet II

1451 - 1481

took control of Constantinople

Shah Ismeal begins the Safavid empire

1501

a small, landlocked Muslim state who were primarily shia muslim and had many conflicts with the surrounding empires

Battle of Chaldiran

1514

Ottoman victory over the Safavids

rule of Suleyman the Magnificent

1520 - 1566

The greatest ruler of the Ottoman empire and expanded the empire.

beginning of the Mughal empire

1526

Muslim control over a primarily Hindu population

Rule of Akbar

1556 - 1605

The greatest Mughal ruler who really appealed to the massive Hindu population