Period of Early Modernization


Holy Roman Empire

962 - 1806

The Holy Roman Empire was a varying of complex lands put together that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe. It is known to be one of the longest Empires in history.

Songhay Empire

1340 - 1591

Songhay was one of the largest Empires in History with its capital in Gao. This capital state has stayed here since the 11th century.

Aztec Empire

1428 - 1521

The Aztec Empire was a very powerful empire that ruled until the invasion of the Spanish. Sacrificing people and blood battles were all inacted for their gods.

Inca Empire

1438 - 1533

The Inca Empire was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America and one of the most powerful empires in the Americas behind the Aztecs.

Ottoman Empire

1453 - 1923

The Ottoman Empire vasted over much of the area of Turkey and their greatest accomplishment was that of the take over of Constantinople and changing it to Istanbul.

Spanish Empire

1492 - 1975

Originally the great European power, but was on the decline after the defeat by the British. Sponsored Columbus.

Portugese Empire

1498 - 1825

An empire thriving in the IOT and the Atlantic(Brazil and Guinea), this empire competed directly with the Dutch for territory and trade.

Safavid Empire

1501 - 1736

The least prosperous of the 3 gunpowder empires. The landlocked state lacked products of desire, and was doomed once its Shia faith offended its surrounding powerful Sunni neighbors

Mughal Empire

1526 - 1857

One of the 3 Islamic gunpowder empires. Founded by Turks claiming lineage to the Mongols and Timur, this empire ruled the Indian Peninsula.

French Empire

1534 - 1803

Established the territory of New France, which fueled the world fur trade and began contact of Natives with White men in the area.

British Empire

1583 - 1815

The most powerful Sea Empire ever, it also established the most dominant nation to ever inhabit this wonderful planet, 'Merica!!

Russian Empire

1721 - 1917

Though behind its other fellow Europeans, this expansion set up Russia as a great power and mixed the cultures across the Steppes of Asia.


Ottomans capture Constantinople


Ends the final remnant of the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire. Allows the Ottomans to then control the precious port, and ultimately the Mediterranean Sea trade.

Spanish Inquisition

1481 - 1834

The authority of the Spanish throne to enforce Catholicism. Often led to persecution of Protestants in Spanish lands.

Dias rounded Cape of Good Hope


Opened the gates for the Europeans(Portugese) to enter the Indian Ocean Trade. He was looking for a trade route to India free of Muslim control. He was also searching for that elusive guy called Prester John

Columbian Exchange

1492 - 2013

Marked the beginning of a modern world. Exchanged ideas/things, and diseases between the Old and New worlds, greatly changing societies.

Columbus / Reconquista of Spain


Effort to drive Islam out of the Iberian Peninsula. Finally succeeded and gave way to a unified spanish monarchy that allowed columbus to set sail to the new world.

Treaty of Tordesillas


Pope established colonial boundary for Spain and Portugal, with Brazil and Philippines as the exceptions.

Triangle Trade Diaspora

1502 - 1865

The trade route between the Americas and Africa and Europe. Its effect was the diffusion of people and goods in all different directions. linked to the Columbian Exchange.

1st slaves to Americas


Though the ball began rolling slowly, this initial push led to a future of great momentum and magnitude, forever changing America and Africa.

Battle of Chaldrian


The Ottomans defeat the Safavids. Pretty much ended any hopes of the oppressives Shi'ites that were eclipsed by their powerful neighbors.

Martin Luther / 95 Theses


German priest who disagreed with certain actions of clergy, but mostly the focus on good deeds rather than faith. Published these ideas in 95 Theses

Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1648

The challenge of the Catholic systems and beliefs. It led to a schism in the Church and new denominations were formed. Also triggered a Catholic counter-reformation

Cortez conquered the Aztecs


He defeated this short-lived empire, which led to an immediate blending of cultures and oppression of most natives.

Pizarro toppled the Inca


His small force overthrew Atalahupe's large army, ending the most complex and prosperous of the American Empires.


1534 - 1763

Northern portion of New France that was crucial in the fur trade and shipping process of Les Francais. 1763, il a achete par l'anglais.

Catholic Reformation

1545 - 1648

Countered the Protestant Reformation. Reshaped the Catholic Church. Ended the issue with indulgences, and focused on the education of clergy members with the help of the establishment of the Society of Jesus.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Called for by the Pope to begin a counter-reformation and address the issues that have been brought up. Reaffirmed that Catholic faith.

joint stock company

1553 - 1856

Trading company that was owned by private share holders, rather than the nation itself. This allowed the wealth to still be accumulated while the risk was shared, as sending many ships loaded with valuable cargo out into the ocean was rather risky.

Battle of Lepanto (defeat of Ottoman Navy)


This added to the forces that began slowing the expansion of the Ottoman Empire. Allowed Europeans to gain power in the Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea.

Defeat of the Spanish Armada by the British


Occured off the British Isle. British had more maneuverable boats, storms sunk some Spanish vessels. Ended Spain's reign as dominant European naval power, opening road for England and other nations.

East India Company

1600 - 1874

The British East India Company was a joint-stock company owned by private shareholders. Dominated many aspects of global trade during its existence.

Battle of Sekigahara - unification of Japan - beggining of Tokugawa rule


A Shogun hailing from Tokugawa defeated the feudal lords to become the ruler of Japan, unifying the Islands. This led to Japan being a great imperial power into WWII

Foundation of Jamestown


First English colony in North America. Set up for later British Colonies.


1607 - 1699

What was learned in these hard years was applied to contemporary and later colonies, increasing the survival rate and ease of life in those places.

30 years war

1618 - 1648

Protestant-Catholic War in HRE that ended in the Peace of Westphalia, giving sovereign rights to European states.


1650 - 1800

Reformation of thinking. Encouraged investigation through thought and reasoning, discouraged superstitious religioius beliefs. Led to great scientific discoveries of the natural world.

Unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna


First defeat for the Ottomans. Ended their advancement into the European Peninsula. Gave hope to the worried Christians.

Glorious Revolution / English Bill of Rights


Laid down civil rights of the people that cannot be abridged by the monach or parliament.

7 Year's War

1754 - 1762

Big huge conflict between a bunch of Europeans. Hapsbugs, Boubans, Hanovers, Prussians, etc. Took place in North America and had loose effects on all of the territories of the competing nations.


Zheng He

1371 - 1433

Zheng He was a Chinese court eunuch, mariner, explorer, diplomat and fleet admiral. In his life, he commanded voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, Somalia and the Swahili coast. His many voyages are often referred to as the "Voyages of Zheng He" traveling from 1405 to 1433.

Prince Henry the Navigator

1394 - 1460

Prince Henry the Naigator was responsible for many voyages that then lead to early development of European exploration and maritime trade with other continents.

Johannes Gutenburg

1398 - 1468

Johannes Gutenburg was the mind behind printing with movable type.

Bartolomeu Dias

1451 - 1500

Bartolomeu Dias sailed around the southernmost tip of Africa in 1488. He was also claimed to be the first European known to do this.

Christopher Columbus

1452 - 1506

Sailed the Ocean blue in 1492, Christopher Columbus ultimatly found the New World for Spain. Aided by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, Colubus was the first to discover the Americas.

Vasco de Gama

1460 - 1524

Vasco de Gama is known for being the first European to reach India through sea. He was most successful in the Age of Discovery when he became the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India.

Sunni Ali

1464 - 1492

Sunni Ali, first king of the Songhai Empire, ruled over both urban Muslims and rural non-Muslims concurrently when the co-existence of many different beliefs was being questioned.


1466 - 1520

Montezuma was the emperor of the Aztec Empire. When the Spanish arrived on November 8, 1519 lead by Hernan Cortez, Montezuma was stoned to death by his own people when he tried to settle the bickering.


1469 - 1527

Machiaelli was an Italian historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist and writer in Florence during the Renaissance. Along with Leonardo, Machiaelli accomplished many things and was a founder of modern political science.

Francisco Pizarro

1471 - 1541

Franciso Pizarro sailed from Spain to the New World with Alonzo de Ojeda on an expedition to Urabí on November 10,1509. He sailed to Cartagena as well as many other places such as northern Peru.

Nicolaus Copernicus

1473 - 1543

Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer. He later formulated a heliocentric model of the universe which placed the Sun at the center instead of the Earth. The Earth was previoulsy thought to be here.

Vasco de Balboa

1475 - 1519

Vasco de Balboa was a Spanish explorer, governor, and conquistador. He is most popular for his crossing of the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific Ocean in 1513. He then became the first European to reach the Pacific from the New World previously not knowing.

Ferdinand Magellan

1480 - 1521

Ferdinand Magellan's expedition completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth even though he did not last throughout the entire trip. He died 3/4 of the way.

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

Martin Luther was the leader of the Protestant Reformation against the Catholic Church. His ideas influenced many to convert over, excpecially princes and people of the lower clases.

Hernan Cortez

1485 - 1547

Hernan Cortez was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and its emperor Montezuma. His doings brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century as well.

Ignatius of Loyola

1491 - 1556

Ignatius was a Spanish knight from a local noble family. He was was a theologian, who founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). Many people turned to the Jesuits and many joined.


1497 - 1533

Atahualpa was known to be the last Inca emperor of the Inca Empire before the Spanish conquest. The spaniard Francisco Pizarro captured Atahualpa and used him to control the Inca Empire eventually killing him.

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

John Calvin was an influential French theologian and pastor during the (Switzerland) Protestant Reformation. He later worked on a book called The Institutes of the Christian Religion that was published in 1536.

Tokugawa Ieyasu

1543 - 1616

Ieyasu was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan. The Tokugawa shogunate, family, ruled from 1600 after the Battle of Sekigahara until the Meiji Restoration in 1868.

Matteo Ricci

1552 - 1610

Matteo Ricci was an Italian Jesuit priest and known to be one of the most important Jesuits of all time. Matteo Ricci's is titled today as Servant of God.

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642

Galileo, similar to many others during his time, was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. He discovered Sun spots risking his eyes for science. He soon became blind for overuse of his eyes toward the Sun.

Thomas Hobbes

1588 - 1679

Thomas Hobbes was an English philosopher. He is best known for his work on political philosophy due to the book that he wrote, Leviathan. Many of his other strong points were in geometry, history, the physics of gases, theology, and ethics.

John Locke

1632 - 1704

John Locke was an English philosopher and physician. He is/was regarded as one of the most influential thinkers during the Enlightenment. Epistemology and political philosophy were two fields influenced greatly by John.

Louis XIV

1638 - 1715

Louis XIV, aka the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre. His drive to end feudalism later came to shape France.


1654 - 1722

Kangxi is currently the longest ruling emperor in China during the Qing dynasty. Known to be one of the greatest rulers of China, his rein lasted for 61 years.

Peter/Catherine the Great

1672 - 1796

Ruled Russia for a variety of time each. Catherine was known to be the longest ruling female of Russia in history. Peter begain the Westernization of Russia. Catherine began expanding the empire.

Francois-Marie Arouet Voltaire

1694 - 1778

Francois was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher. He was very famous for his wit, and his liberations against the established Catholic Church.


1711 - 1799

Qianlong was the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China's Qing Dynasty. Next to Kangxi, he was one of the greatest emperors of the Qing Dyansty.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

1712 - 1778

Jean-Jacques was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of 18th-century Romanticism. He was also a very successfull composer of music leading to his many musical accomplishments.

Adam Smith

1723 - 1790

Adam Smith was known for two classic works during the Enlighenment called "The Theory of Moral Sentiments" written in 1759, and "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations" written in 1776.