Early Modern Era


Age of exploration

Prince Henry the navigator

1394 - 1460

Sponsored expeditions, established a school for the study of mapmaking, shipbuilding, and navigation



Naval technology and naval warfare enabled the Portuguese to quickly establish fortified bases

Bartolomeu Dias

1451 - 1500

Discovered the Cape of Good Hope in 1488

Christopher Columbus

1451 - 1524

1492 Columbus landed in new world

Vasco de Gama

1469 - 1524

Discovered ocean route from Portugal to the East

Vasco de Balboa

1475 - 1519

Spanish explorer- first European to reach the Pacific from the new world

Ferdinand Magellan

1480 - 1521

Portuguese explorer- expeditions around Africa and to the Phillipines



French colonies in the new world primarily in present day Canada, less of a power than Spain and England



Spainish colonies primarily in Brazil and the Carribean, less harsh takeover than England



East India Companies Duthc- monopolize spice trade British- Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras

Columbian Exchange


There is no exact date to when trade between the new world and Europe (columbian exchange) started but seeing how Columbus did not land in the new world until 1492, 1550 is a ruff guess, trade of food crops ideas and people

East India company

1600 - 1708

Dutch-monopolize spice trade British-Bombay,Calcutta,Madras ;Indian cotton textiles

joint stock company


Each shareholder owns a portion of the company together charter a ship and explorer

7 years War

1642 - 1649

Civil war in England that the constitutional monarchy evolved out of

Early modern Europe


1398 - 1468

Created the Gutenberg printing press enabling Martin Luther's ideas to be read widely



from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy, became power in Europe through colonies in New World

Holy Roman Empire

1400 - 1806

Not holy not roman and not an empire



Supported idea of Absolute monarchy, colonies in new world in present day Canda

Printing Press



1469 - 1527

The father of modern political theory


1473 - 1543

Finds solar system is heliocentric or sun centered disproving Aristotle

Spanish Inquisition


Used by the Spanish monarchy to detect Protestand heresy and political dissidents, used to discover secret Muslims and Jews



In 1480 Russia was freed from the Mongols by Ivan iii, fur trade encourage expansion into Siberia

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

Wrote 95 theses in 1517-saw corruption in clergy of catholic church,called for a reform

Ignatius Loyola

1491 - 1556

Founded the society of Jesus (Jesuits) in 1540

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

French convert to Protestantism, organized model of Protestant community in the 1530s

Protestant Reformation


Started with Martin Luther, spread outside Germany, Protestant movements popular in Low Countries

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Created by Pope Paul iii in response to the Protestant Reformation

Catholic Reformation

1545 - 1648

Counter Reformation- pope final authority, bible is final authority, education of clergy


1564 - 1630

Theory of Velocity, law of inertia, telescope

Battle of Lepanto


Was a defeat of the Ottoman Navy

Defeat of the spanish Armada by the British


Spain vs. British = Phillip ii vs. Elizabeth


1598 - 1679

Philosophe social contract=cede rights to an absolute ruler

30 years war

1618 - 1648

A religious that eventually encompassed much of Europe and was ended by the Peace of Westphalia

John Locke

1632 - 1704

Philosophe social contract=will of the people

Louis xiv

1643 - 1715

The sun king of France- created court of Versailles and promoted economic development


1650 - 1800

Question accepted practices, human use of reasoning

Peter/Catherine the Great

1682 - 1725

Tried to modernize and enlighten Russia I.e. Peter brought scholars to Russia

Siege of Vienna


Unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna

English Bill of Rights


Treaty of Nerchinsk apart of the Glorious revolution


1694 - 1778

French Philosophe champion of religious liberty and individual freedom


1712 - 1778

Perserving human freedom where human beings a dependent on one another for satisfaction of their needs

Adam Smith

1723 - 1790

Father of economics- added laws of supply and demand to determine price

Colonial Americas


1300 - 1500

Powerfull native american society who believed in human sacrafice to the gods, polytheistic


1438 - 1572

largest empire in pre-columbian America patchwork of languages culture and people


1458 - 1547

A Spanish explorer who conquered much of Mexico and the Aztec Empire in 1521


1466 - 1520

Aztec empire reached its maximal hieght under his reign, first contact between MesoAmericans and Europeans killed during Spanish conquest of Mexico


1478 - 1541

Spanish conquistador who helped conquer the Inca Empire in 1502

Treaty of Tordesillas


Agreed upon by the Spanish and the Portuguese to settle disputes about newly claimed land in the New World.


1502 - 1533

The last sovereign emperor of the Inca Empire before Spanish takeover

First slave to Americas




Claimed for France in 1534 by Jacques Cartier and soon became a French colony in the New World



The foundation for Jamestown was created in 1607. Jamestown was the first permanent English settlements in the Americas.

Early Modern Africa

Sunni Ali

1464 - 1492

Sunni Ali was the first king of the Songhai empire, under his reign the Songhai empire surpassed the height of the Mali empire


1468 - 1592

State in Western Africa one of the largest Islamic empires in history base of power on Niger River

Triangular Trade

1500 - 1800

Trade routes that seemed to form a triangle between Africa, the Americas and Europe; slaves were one of the main goods to be transported


1650 - 1800

The Diaspora of Africans occured as a growing demand was placed on slaves, many Africans were shipped out of Africa

Early Modern E. Asia


1368 - 1800

took confucianism with ensights of Buddhism and Daoism to create Neo-confucianism, took hold during the Ming and Qing dynasty


1368 - 1644

Dynasty after Mongol rule tried to restablish "Chinese" dynasty and rid self of Mongol past

Zheng He

1371 - 1433

A Chinese explorer and made many voyages who brought a Chinese naval presence into the Indian Ocean

Forbidden City


chinese imperial palace of Ming and Ching dynasties, served as home of emperors located in what is now Beijing

Tokugawa Ieyasu

1543 - 1616

unified Japan, first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate

Matteo Ricci

1552 - 1610

An Italian Jesuit who introduced Christianity and Western ideas to China

Tokugawa Shogunate

1600 - 1868

Fuedal Japenese military government unified Japan under one ruler the shogun

Battle of Sekigahara


Helped with the unification of Japan the begining of Tokugawa rule

Dutch learning

1641 - 1800

Body of knowledge in Japan through contacts with the Dutch, learned of the scientific revolution


1644 - 1911

Last imperial dynasty of China- worked to unify China


1661 - 1722

Qing emperor who opended ports to foreign trade encouraged Western education and Roman Catholicism


1711 - 1799

Qing emperor, his reign represents the most prosperous period of the Qing dynasty

Muslim "Gunpowder" Empires


1299 - 1922

became empire in 1453 height of power in 1590 under Suleyman the magnificant

Mehmed ii

1432 - 1481

Called Mehmed the conquerer, conquered Constantinople in 1453

Constantinople- Ottomans


In 1453 the Ottomans specifically Mehmet ii conquered Constantinople where it then became Istanbol

Shah Ismail

1487 - 1524

Founder of Safavid empire made it an Shi'a Islamic empire expanded the Safavid empire


1501 - 1723

Islamic "gunpowder empire" established a unified Iranian state, revival of Persia as economic stronghold between east and west

Battle of Chaldiran


Ottomans vs. Safavids first battle between them, Ottomans gained control over eastern Anatolia


1520 - 1566

Called Suleyman the magnificient sultan of Ottoman empire, Ottoman empire reach peak in prosperity and power under his reign


1526 - 1757

greatest part of expansion during Akbar's reign dominant force in Indian subcontinent


1542 - 1605

Mughal emperor who took intrest in art and literature, tolerant to other religions