Commanded the Chinese voyages in the Indian Ocean. He was sponsored by Yongle
Prince Henry the Navigator
1394 - 1460
Portuguese Prince who was responsible for the early development of European exploration and maritime trade with other continents
1398 - 1468
The German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced the printing press to Europe and started the Printing Revolution
1432 - 1481
Conquered Constantinople with the Ottomans - ended the Byzantine Empire
1451 - 1500
Portuguese explorer. First European to sail around the southern tip of Africa in 1488. He was searching for a route to India
1451 - 1506
Spanish explorer - Credited with "discovering" the New World in 1492
1464 - 1492
The first king of the Songhai Empire
1466 - 1520
1469 - 1527
Italian historian. Founder of modern political society
Vasco da Gama
1469 - 1524
Portuguese explorer - First European to sail into the Indian Ocean. Allowed Europe to play a crucial role in Indian Ocean trade
1473 - 1543
Renaissance mathematician. Formulated a heliocentric model. His book began the Copernican Revolution which played a major role in the Scientific revolution.
Vasco de Balboa
1475 - 1519
Spanish conquistador who crossed the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific Ocean
1476 - 1541
Spanish conquistador who helped conquer the Incan Empire
1480 - 1521
Portuguese explorer. He was searching for a westward route to the Spice Islands. He completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth
1483 - 1546
German monk. Realized the faults in the Catholic church and produced the 95 theses. When addressed by the church and asked to recant, he denied saying that he could not. His statements led to the Reformation although that was not the initial intent.
1485 - 1547
Spanish conquistador that led to the fall of the Aztec Empire
1487 - 1524
Founder of the Safavid Dynasty. Unified Iran.
Key role is the rise of the Twelver of Islam
Ignatius of Loyola
1491 - 1556
Spanish knight who found the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) Religious leader during the Counter-Reformation.
1494 - 1566
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Siege of Vienna.
Conflict with the Safavids. Ottoman fleets dominated Mediterranean and Red seas.
1497 - 1533
The last emperor of the Inca before the Spanish invasion
1509 - 1564
French theologian during the Protestant Reformation. Calvinism - Major branch of Western Christianity.
Broke from the Roman Catholic Church and fled to Switzerland
1542 - 1605
Third Mughal emperor. Religiously tolerant
1543 - 1616
Founder of the first shogun of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
1552 - 1610
Italian Jesuit. "Servant of God"
1564 - 1642
Italian mathematician who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. Major contributions to astronomy: the phases of venus, Jupiter's moons, and sunspots. Theory of Heliocentrism: the sun is the center of the universe
1588 - 1679
English philosopher. Social contract - rights to an absolute ruler, abuses of power are price to pay for order
1632 - 1704
"Father of Classical Liberalism". English philosopher. Influenced Voltaire and Rousseau. One of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers
1638 - 1715
Louis "the Great". Ruled France, believer of the divine right of kings. He wanted to eliminate feudalism and became one of the most powerful rulers of France and consolidated an absolute monarchy in France.
1654 - 1722
Second Qing emperor. - longest reigning
Suppressed the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, forced the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan to submit to Qing rule, blocked Tsarist Russia on the Amur River and expanded the empire in the northwest
1694 - 1778
French Enlightenment writer. Satirist. Insulted the Catholic church and was kicked out of France.
1711 - 1799
6th Qing emperor. Maintained ultimate power even after abdicated the throne to his son.
1712 - 1778
Genevan Philosopher, writer, and composer. Political philosophy influenced the French Revolution. Looked to the hypothetical State of Nature
1723 - 1790
Scottish philosopher. He wrote "The Wealth of Nations" and he is considered the father of modern economics
Peter/Catherine the Great
1762 - 1796
The most renowned female leader of Russia. She revitalized Russia into one of the great powers of Europe. She contributed to the expansion of Europe
Gov't / Empires
Holy Roman Empire
800 - 1806
Continuation of the Western Roman Empire. Charles V was unable to unify the empire which eventually fell
1299 - 1923
Founded by Turkish Osman Bey. Became an empire with the conquest of Contantinople by Mehmed II. One of the most powerful empires under Suleiman the Magnificent.
1340 - 1591
Western Africa. One of the largest Islamic empires in history. Ruled by Sonni Ali. Crucial intersection for trans-saharan trade
1350 - 1550
Dominated large parts of Mesoamerica.
The Mexica people.
Developed the Triple Alliance and conquered many other peoples. (The Aztec Empire)
1368 - 1644
Followed the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. Emperor Yongle sponsored voyages made by Zheng He in the Indian Ocean. Chinese government focused on "de-Mongolizing" China and returned to many of the original Chinese ways (i.e. Confucian thinking, civil service exam, etc.)
Portugal - Age of Exploration
1415 - 1750
First European empire to become a part of the IOMS thanks to Vasco da Gama. The first global empire in history. Sought to become a part of the spice trade. Colonies in Americas.
1438 - 1533
Largest empire in pre-Columbian America.
Used conquest and peaceful assimilation.
France - Age of Exploration
1450 - 1750
A little slower in global expansion than other European nations. Played a major role in the fur trade. Furs acquired in North America
France - Early Modern Europe
1450 - 1750
Became a centrally governed state - absolute monarchy. Relied on the Divine Right of Kings and the support of the Catholic church.
1501 - 1736
Established the Twelver school of shia islam (official religion).
One of the three gunpowder empires.
1517 - 1750
Home of Russian Catholic Church. Jesuits converted many to Catholicism. Many rebellions
1526 - 1857
India. Descendants of Genghis Khan. Akbar the Great - benefited the government and economy of the empire. Shah Jahan - Golden Age
Spain - Age of Exploration
1581 - 1640
Originated during the Age of Exploration and was one of the first Global Empires. Colonies in the Americas and Africa. Some colonies lasted into the 20th century.
1600 - 1868
Feudal Japanese military government. Heads of government - shoguns. Central authority fell to Tokugawa Ieyasu. Social hierarchy. Expelled all europeans except for the Dutch. Unified Japan
England - Age of Exploration
1600 - 1708
Many colonies in North America. Participated in fur trade by trading with Native Americans; also participated in slave trade. However, received nowhere near as many slaves as other empires
England - Early Modern Europe
1600 - 1708
The Renaissance took place. As did the English Reformation when Henry VIII wanted an annulment from his wife Catherine of Aragon and he broke away from the Pope and the Catholic church. The English civil war took place when Charles I abused his powers as king.
1644 - 1911
Foreign and nomadic origin - Manchurian
Campaigned against the Mongols. Strong army.
Joint stock company
A business owned by shareholders. Many voyages in the Age of Exploration were sponsored by these. Investors would split the costs of voyages to avoid too great of losses
Neo - Confuciansim
1368 - 1912
A blending of Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism. Said withdrawal from the world was not necessary. Practiced by the Ming and Qing dynasties
The Chinese imperial palace from the Ming - Qing dynasties. Located in the middle of Beijing. Political center of Chinese government.
Constantinople -> Ottomans
The demise of Constantinople and the Byzantine empire. Conquered by the Ottoman ruler, Mehmed II (The conqueror)
Constantinople changed to Istanbul
1478 - 1834
Intended to maintain Catholic Orthodoxy. Also intended to discover secret Muslims and Jews and to expel them from Spain.
Exchange of goods, people, animals, diseases, and resources spurred by Christopher Columbus's voyage to the Americas in 1492
Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty made by the Pope that divided land "evenly" to Spain and Portugal. Spain got one half, Portugal got the other half. Disregarded anyone already inhabiting these lands
Battle of Chaldiran
Battle between the Ottomans and the Safavids. Ottomans won - gained control over eastern Anatolia and northern Iraq. The beginning of a 41 year war that ended with the Treaty of Amasya
1517 - 1648
Sparked by Martin Luther's 95 theses noting the flaws in the Catholic church. He was asked to recant but denied. He saw the problems with the indulgences in the church and he believed salvation was achieved through faith alone. This schism cause a wave of people breaking from the Catholic church and forming a new branch of christianity: Protestantism
Council of Trent
1545 - 1563
Began during the Catholic Reformation. Condemned Protestant heresies.
1545 - 1648
In response to the Protestant Reformation, the Catholic church made changes that began with the Council of Trent and ended after the Thirty Year's War. They reformed some elements of the catholic church
1600 - 1880
Typically slave trade between Western Africa, American Colonies, and Europe.
1600 - 1880
Movement of people from their homeland
Trans-Saharan slave trade, Atlantic Slave trade, Expulsion of Jews from Middle East
East India Company
1600 - 1873
Both the Dutch and the English had one. Received charters from their governments and were given authority. The British, unlike the Dutch, were never able to monopolize anything.
Virginia. The first successful British colony in the New World. Almost diminished, John Smith maintained it. A ship brought supplies and the colony managed to survive.
Very crucial location to fur trade. Owned by the French.
1650 - 1750
Aesthetics, ethics, and logic.
7 year's war
1754 - 1763
Europe, North america, Central American, India, the Philippines, and Western Africa. Began with conflict between Great Britain and the Bourbons which resulted from conflicts over hegemony in the Holy Roman Empire.
Rangaku. Developed by Japan through contact with the Dutch. Allowed Japan to keep in touch with Western technology and medicine even when it was shut off to the rest of the world.
Need to know dates
Ottomans capture Constantinople
End of Byzantine empire. Renamed Istanbul
Dias rounded Cape of Good Hope
Dias told to find a route to Asia around the southern tip of Africa.
Columbus / Reconquista of Spain
Brought the Americas into Global Trade
First Slaves to Americas
Most native slaves died due to poor living conditions on the ships and/or diseases. Europeans traded with Africans for slaves.
Martin Luther / 95 Theses
Sparked the Protestant Reformation
Cortez conquered the Aztecs
End of the Aztecs. Claimed Mesoamerica for Spain.
Pizarro toppled the Inca
Also claimed Mesoamerica for Spain.
Battle of Lepanto
Holy League defeated the main fleet of the Ottoman Empire. Prevented the Mediterranean sea from becoming a highway for Muslim travelers.
Defeat of the Spanish Armada by the British
The British lucky with a storm that wiped out many ships. Signaled the decline of Spanish forces in Europe.
Battle of Sekigahara
Cleared the path to the Shogunate for Tokugawa Ieyasu. Unofficial beginning of Tokugawa Bakufu
Foundation of Jamestown
First successful British colony in the New World. Almost diminished, ship brought supplies that restored the colony.
Thirty Year's war
1618 - 1648
Series of wars in Europe. One of the most destructive and longest wars in European history. Began as a religious war, but ended up being a political conflict.
Unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna
As Vienna was close to surrendering, another army came in led by a Polish leader and defeated the Ottomans.