Mehmet II the Conqueror = end of the Roman Empire
Reconquering of the Spanish's Iberian peninsula back from the Berber Muslims. Fueled by Christians' devotion to their religion, desire for land and profit and was also a crusade against infidels (Muslims). Since the Europeans were marveled by the Asian goods they encountered during the crusades, Columbus decided to discover a western shortcut to China.
Juan de Cordoba of Seville becomes the 1st merchant to send slaves from Africa to the New World. First slaves were sent by the Spanish and the Portuguese after their free source of labor (the natives of Americas) were declining from disease and overworking.
The Protestant Reformation
Criticized the sale of indulgences, the luxurious lifestyle of the pope, and the corruption of the clergy.
Captured Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec empire = end of Aztecs
Proved that there's a sea route to the east and opened way for European sea voyages around Africa and into Asia
Pizarro captured by the Inca during the Battle of Cajamarco. This allowed the Spanish to suppress any rebellions from the Inca and then successfully conquer the empire.
Defeat of Ottoman Navy by the allied Christian forces when the Ottomans were trying to take over Cyprus.
Spain vs Britain; Philip II vs Elizabeth It was called the "invincible armada" and it was defeated by the English with Lord Charles Howard and Sir Francis in charge. Made England a global power in naval forces.
Battle between Tokugawa Ieyasu and Ishida Mitsunari. Tokugawa's victory = unification of Japan, marking the beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate's reign
First permanent English settlement in the Americas. Not a very wise location since there was an ideal spot just up ahead of the town.
Started as a local, religious conflict between the Protestants and the Catholics in Bohemia but then spread to involve the majority of Europe
Their defeat at the gates of Viena marks the decline of their empire. Also marks the beginning of the Great Turkish War
King James II of England overthrown by Parilament and thus the English Bill of Rights was signed to limit the power of the monarchy
Splitting the New World between the Spanish and the Portuguese as dictated by the Pope. Spain gets the western side of the line and Portugal gets the eastern side of the line, leaving Portugal with a portion of Brazil.
Started unintentionally by Martin Luther and his 99 Theses against the Catholic Church.
Also known as the Counter Reformation. A directed reform of the Roman Catholic Church by the Council of Trent in response to the Protestant Reformation.
Carles V was unable to establish a unified state due to external pressures from the French and Ottomans and also due to internal conflicts from the Protestants.
One of the gunpowder empires. Islam, Turkic
The Songhai used the Mali Empire's decline to their advantage in 1340 and gained independence
Cleansing all traces of Mongol influence from the previous rule in China
Controlled ports in the Indian Ocean Maritime for trade and commerce. Wasn't interested in gaining territory for trade.
Started by semi-nomadic people who settled down in Tenochtitlan and became a formidable tribute empire with the help of the Triple Alliance
Located in Cusco (Peru) and was the largest empire before the arrival of the Spanish.
One of the key players in the Age of Exploration. Christopher Columbus was able to sail to the New World thanks to Spain's king and queen.
Had a separate Protestant Revolution in which King Henry VIII broke off from the Catholic Church due to his desire to divorce. Has a constitutional monarchy with Parliament.
One of the most powerful forces in Europe. They were one of the key reasons why Charles V was unable to unify the Holy Roman Empire.
Wedged in between the Ottomans and the Mughals. The empire didn't exactly last too long since they were Shia Muslims with Sunni Muslim neighbors. Couldn't really trade either because of that.
Empire in India, they ruled over a population with mainly Hindus. Meaning religious conflicts between the Hindus and the Muslim minorities. Akbar saw this and practiced religious tolerance but his successor reversed his efforts.
The last imperial dynasty of China. Ruled by the Manchurians.
During this time, Russia was far behind compared to the rest of Europe. Peter the Great was all about westernization in Russia.
Chinese admiral who commanded voyages throughout the Indian Ocean. A key player in China's role in the Indian Ocean Maritime Trade.
Portuguese prince who didn't really sail the oceans and wasn't really a navigaor either. He was responsible for many of the expeditions down Africa's west coast and his actions aided the start of the Great Age of Discovery. Also started the first school for oceanic navigation along with an astronomical observatory.
Introduced the printing press to Europe. Thanks to him, Martin Luther's 99 Theses spread widely during the Protestant Reformation.
Mehmet the Conqueror. Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He conquered Constantinople which brought an end to the Byzantine Empire. He then went onto to Asia and Europe.
Portuguese navigator who discovered the Cape of Good Hope, proving to the Europeans that there is actually an oceanic route to India by going around the tip of Africa. Also discovered the south-east trade winds and the westerlies to the west and south of South Africa.
Sailed for the new world in the name of the Spanish in August 1492. He 'discovered' the new world when he set foot on present-day Bahamas and claimed it for Spain.
This Portuguese explorer disovered an ocean route from Portugal to the East via around Africa and past the Cape of Good Hope and reached Calicut, India on May 1498.
Founder of the Songhay empire in West Africa. "Ali the Great" Reigned from 1464 to 1492. Under his reign, Songhay surpassed the Mali at its peak.
The ninth ruler of Tenochtitlan of the Aztecs. He was killed when the Spanish came over with Hernan Cortes. The Aztec was at its peak during his reign as he expanded through warfare.
Italian historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, and humanist in Florence during the Renaissance. Wrote "the Prince" to gain the favor of the Medici but the neither the Medici or the public agreed. Thus, he became associated with corrupt ruling and today, Machiavellian means corrupt government due to his bad reputation.
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Inca Empire.
Mathematician and astronomer. He suggested that the sun was at the center of the universe contrary to the Church's accepted concept of an Earth centered model.
Spanish conqiustador/explorer who was the first European to reach the eastern shore of the Pacific Ocean. He traveled through the dense jungles of present-day Panama and claimed the ocean and its shores in the name of Spain. This allowed for the beginnings of Spanish conquest/exploration along the western coast of South America.
Was given credit for being the first to circumnavigate the real world. Unfortunately, he died before reaching the Philipines but some of his crew members survived for the whole duration.
German monk who criticized the corruption of the Catholic Church and wrote the 99 Thesis. It spread widely thanks to the Gutenburg printing press. Lutherism and further schisms in Christianity was the result. The Protestant Reformation.
Spanish Conquistador who led the expedition in the Americas that resulted in the collapse of the Aztec Empire and brought a substantial chunk of Mexico under King of Castile's rule in the 16th century.
The founder of the Safavid dynasty. He took over what is now present day Iran, declared himself the Shah of the new Persian state, and sent Shia preachers to Anatolia to promote rebellion among the Turks in the Ottoman Empire.
Founder of the Jesuits (the Society of Jesus) which was crucial in the Catholic Reformation. The Jesuits came to be in 1450 and they emphasized education and were effective advisers and missionaries worldwide.
Suleyman the Magnificent. Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Expanded the empire all the way to the edge of Western Europe. Established public works projects in major cities of the Islamic world. Extensive renovations of the Dome of the Rock.
The last Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire before the Spanish conquest. He was caputured by Pizarro and was used to control the Inca Empire. With his execution, the Inca empire ended completely.
Organized the model Protestant community in Geneva. Calvanism. Calvanist missionaries became successful in Scotland, Low Countries, France, and England.
Born in times of civil war, he became the shogun, bringing peace and unity in Japan. He restored stability to Japan and encouraged foreign trade. Later, the Tokugawa shogunate cut off foreign contact.
Akbar the Great; thirdd Mughal Emperor. Practiced religious tolerance to ease the animosity within the empire with the different religions. Created his own cult which blended Islam, Hinduism, and Zoroastrianism.
An Italian priest who funded the Jesuit China Mission. His method in China was to show interest in learning China's cultures and traditions rather than straightforwardly showcasing their intentions of laying out a new religion.
Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher who was a key player in the Scientific Revolution. He saw sunspots, moons of Jupiter, and mountains of the moon using a telescope. Wrote the "Starry Messenger". Had to recant due to threats from the Church.
English philosopher whose ideas of the world are relevant to today's politics. Idea of social contract, a 'state of nature' in which there are no government institutions.
English philosopher and physician and was one of the most influential thinkers of the Enlightenment. All human knowledge comes from sense perceptions.
The Sun King of France. During his reign, absolute monarchy was at its height and he built a lavish court at Versailles to showcase his power.
The second emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty who came to power after his father's death. He came to power at the age of eight and had help in ruling the empire through regents until he was older. He found history to be important and had a Qing Dynasty dictionary created.
French philosophe, believed in religious liberty and individual freedom. Wrote about seventy volumes that were usually satires. He didn't like the Church or absolutists or democracy.
The sixth emperor of the Qing Dynasty. He was skillful in handling relationships with the Manchu, Han and other ethnic minorities. The Qing Dynasty was at its peak during his reign.
Genevan philosopher whose political philosophy influenced the French Revolution and the development of modern political, sociological, and educational thoughts.
Scottish moral philosopher. Wrote "The Wealth of Nations" which influenced today's economics and the ideas of individual freedom (laissez faire). Laws of supply and demand determine price.
Peter III of Russia died a few months after being crowned the king due to his wife's coup detat and thus, Catherine the Great took over the throne afterwards. Pushed forward for Westernazation in the highly falling behind Russia.