Ages, Empires, and Civilizations
Italy Before Rome
1800 bc - 753 bc
-Lived in Northern Italy,
-Specialized in olives and wine production
By 800 BC dominant culture in northern and central Italy was the urban culture of the Etruscans
-Alphabet, Roman Numerals, Togas, the arch and vault
1700 BC - 1250 BC
- Earliest center of civilization in the Aegean region.
- Located on the island of Crete.
- Knossos Capital
- walls 4 stories tall, surrounded central court of aprx. 20,000 sq.ft.
1400 BC - 1230 BC
- Accomplished warriors, but wars were so destructive they eventually resulted in the Dark Age (1100-800BC).
- Built palaces based on Cretan models.
- Consisted of several small states, each with its own ruling dynasty.
1100 BC - 800 BC
- An era of transition between a dead Mycenaean civilization and a still unborn Hellenistic civilization.
Foundation of Rome
753 bc - 509 bc
According to Roman legend, Rome was founded by the brothers Romulus and Remus in 753 BC
Rome's Seven Hills
Age of Colonization
750 BC - 550 BC
- Gradually, Greek cities founded settlements on the islands of the Aegean, along the coast of Asia Minor and the Black Sea, and to the west in Sicily and southern Italy.
- Grew to become independent, self-governing city states.
- Key cities: Byzantium, Neapolis, Syracuse, Nikaia, and Missilia
The Roman Republic
509 bc - 27 bc
- Began with the overthrow of the Tarquin Superbus (the Proud)
-The last Etruscan king.
- Government headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate.
- Expanded through a combination of conquest and alliances, from central Italy to the entire Italian peninsula.
- Later included North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, Greece, and what is now southern France.
- Two centuries after that it included the rest of modern France, and much of the eastern Mediterranean.
- Came to an end when Octavian seized power in 27BC
- Shaped American government systems
- Romans conquered by Greek tradition
323 bc - 146 bc
- The period of ancient Greek legacy between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of ancient Rome.
- Characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization and cultural dominance
- Saw the rise of major cities such as Alexandria
312 bc - 63 bc
- Founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the fractioning of the empire created by Alexander the Great following his death.
- Major center of Hellenistic culture that maintained the preeminence of Greek customs
- Ruled by a Greek-Macedonian political elite mostly in the urban areas.
306 bc - 168 bc
- One of four dynasties established by Alexander's successors, the others being the Seleucid dynasty, Ptolemaic dynasty and Attalid dynasty.
- The last scion of the dynasty, Perseus of Macedon, who reigned between 179-168 BC, proved unable to stop the advancing Roman legions and Macedon's defeat at the Battle of Pydna signaled the end of the dynasty.
305 bc - 30 bc
- One of the kingdoms fractured from the collapse of Alexander the Great's empire.
- Ptolemy I Soter declares himself Pharaoh of Egypt and creates a powerful Hellenistic dynasty
- The area stretching from southern Syria to Cyrene and south to Nubia.
- Lasts until the death of Cleopatra and the Roman conquest of 30 BC
Julio - Claudian Dynasty
27 bc - 96 ad
- First five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero
- Ruled the Roman Empire from its formation, in the second half of the 1st century until AD 68, when the last of the line, Nero, committed suicide.
- None of the Julio-Claudians were succeeded by their sons
The Spread of Christianity
33 ad - 604 ad
- No governing hierarchy during early spread of Christianity
- Much diversity and debate in early stages
- Local churches were independent
-Administered by elders and deacons
-Eventually bishops superseded
- Bishops become most influential figures
- Bishops disagreed with one another frequently
- Bishops give way to Popes, as Bishop is Rome claims divine authority
- Monks continue to spread the Gospel
- Monasteries are established
- Saints / Bishops begin to write theological books
The Five Good Emperors
96 ad - 180 ad
- The five emperors to hold power after Nero which included: Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius
- Known for governance by absolute power, under the guidance of wisdom and virtue
- Period of "Bread and Circuses"
Recovery under Diocletian
285 ad - 305 ad
- Diocletian reorganized the empire and strengthened it but its rule became more oppressive.
Resurgence in the East: Byzantium
330 ad - 1453 ad
- German speaking
- Capital Constantinople
- Remnants of the Roman Empire
- Led at first by Justinian
400 ad - 800 ad
- A period of intense human migration particularly of Germanic and otherwise foreign tribes into and beyond the borders of the Roman Empire
- The period of the death of the western Roman Empire
Italy after Attila
455 - 585 ad
- Vandals sack Rome for the second time
- Rome never fully recovers
- Romulus Augustulus, the last emperor is deposed by Odoacer 476 AD
- Roman culture survives
- Theodoric tries to maintain Roman government system
*Catholic Church maintains order and government