Timeline 2

1800 BC - 585 AD

Ages, Empires, and Civilizations

Italy Before Rome

1800 bc - 753 bc
  • Etruscans
    -Lived in Northern Italy,
    -Urban people
    -Specialized in olives and wine production

  • By 800 BC dominant culture in northern and central Italy was the urban culture of the Etruscans

  • Legacy
    -Alphabet, Roman Numerals, Togas, the arch and vault

Minoan Civilization

1700 BC - 1250 BC
  • Earliest center of civilization in the Aegean region.
  • Located on the island of Crete.
  • Knossos Capital - walls 4 stories tall, surrounded central court of aprx. 20,000 sq.ft.

Mycenaean Civilization

1400 BC - 1230 BC
  • Accomplished warriors, but wars were so destructive they eventually resulted in the Dark Age (1100-800BC).
  • Built palaces based on Cretan models.
  • Consisted of several small states, each with its own ruling dynasty.

Dark Age

1100 BC - 800 BC
  • An era of transition between a dead Mycenaean civilization and a still unborn Hellenistic civilization.

Foundation of Rome

753 bc - 509 bc
  • According to Roman legend, Rome was founded by the brothers Romulus and Remus in 753 BC

  • Rome's Seven Hills
    *Quirinal Hill
    *Viminal Hill
    *Capitoline Hill
    Esquiline Hill
    *Palatine Hill
    *Caelian Hill
    *Aventine Hill

Age of Colonization

750 BC - 550 BC
  • Gradually, Greek cities founded settlements on the islands of the Aegean, along the coast of Asia Minor and the Black Sea, and to the west in Sicily and southern Italy.
  • Grew to become independent, self-governing city states.
  • Key cities: Byzantium, Neapolis, Syracuse, Nikaia, and Missilia

The Roman Republic

509 bc - 27 bc
  • Began with the overthrow of the Tarquin Superbus (the Proud) -The last Etruscan king.
  • Government headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate.
  • Expanded through a combination of conquest and alliances, from central Italy to the entire Italian peninsula.
  • Later included North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, Greece, and what is now southern France.
  • Two centuries after that it included the rest of modern France, and much of the eastern Mediterranean.
  • Came to an end when Octavian seized power in 27BC
  • Shaped American government systems
  • Romans conquered by Greek tradition

Hellenistic Age

323 bc - 146 bc
  • The period of ancient Greek legacy between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of ancient Rome.
  • Characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization and cultural dominance
  • Saw the rise of major cities such as Alexandria

Seleucid Kingdom

312 bc - 63 bc
  • Founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the fractioning of the empire created by Alexander the Great following his death.
  • Major center of Hellenistic culture that maintained the preeminence of Greek customs
  • Ruled by a Greek-Macedonian political elite mostly in the urban areas.

Antigonid Dynasty

306 bc - 168 bc
  • One of four dynasties established by Alexander's successors, the others being the Seleucid dynasty, Ptolemaic dynasty and Attalid dynasty.
  • The last scion of the dynasty, Perseus of Macedon, who reigned between 179-168 BC, proved unable to stop the advancing Roman legions and Macedon's defeat at the Battle of Pydna signaled the end of the dynasty.

Ptolemic Kingdom

305 bc - 30 bc
  • One of the kingdoms fractured from the collapse of Alexander the Great's empire.
  • Ptolemy I Soter declares himself Pharaoh of Egypt and creates a powerful Hellenistic dynasty
  • The area stretching from southern Syria to Cyrene and south to Nubia.
  • Lasts until the death of Cleopatra and the Roman conquest of 30 BC

Julio - Claudian Dynasty

27 bc - 96 ad
  • First five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero
  • Ruled the Roman Empire from its formation, in the second half of the 1st century until AD 68, when the last of the line, Nero, committed suicide.
  • None of the Julio-Claudians were succeeded by their sons

The Spread of Christianity

33 ad - 604 ad
  • No governing hierarchy during early spread of Christianity
  • Much diversity and debate in early stages
  • Local churches were independent -Administered by elders and deacons -Eventually bishops superseded
  • Bishops become most influential figures -Jerusalem -Antioch -Alexandria -Rome -Constantinople
  • Bishops disagreed with one another frequently
  • Bishops give way to Popes, as Bishop is Rome claims divine authority
  • Monks continue to spread the Gospel
  • Monasteries are established
  • Saints / Bishops begin to write theological books

The Five Good Emperors

96 ad - 180 ad
  • The five emperors to hold power after Nero which included: Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius
  • Known for governance by absolute power, under the guidance of wisdom and virtue
  • Period of "Bread and Circuses"

Recovery under Diocletian

285 ad - 305 ad
  • Diocletian reorganized the empire and strengthened it but its rule became more oppressive.

Resurgence in the East: Byzantium

330 ad - 1453 ad
  • German speaking
  • Capital Constantinople
  • Remnants of the Roman Empire
  • Led at first by Justinian

Barbarian Invasion

400 ad - 800 ad
  • A period of intense human migration particularly of Germanic and otherwise foreign tribes into and beyond the borders of the Roman Empire
  • The period of the death of the western Roman Empire

Italy after Attila

455 - 585 ad
  • Vandals sack Rome for the second time
  • Rome never fully recovers
  • Romulus Augustulus, the last emperor is deposed by Odoacer 476 AD
  • Roman culture survives
  • Theodoric tries to maintain Roman government system *Catholic Church maintains order and government

Major Cities


900 BC
  • Oligarchy -> Tyranny -> Democracy / Republic No middle class - Very rich and very poor
  • Solon the Reformer -Elected executive chief in 594 BC -Poet and wise man who introduced the Assembly and Council of 400
  • Pisistratus the Tyrant -Good to the poor and hated by the rich -Encouraged cultural and artistic pursuits
  • Cleisthenes (508 BC) -Introduced the final form of government of Athens as democracy as well as ostracism. -Dived city into 10 units - 50 representatives each
  • Council of 500 managed the ports, military institutions, and other state properties.
  • Assembly functioned as a way for citizens to vote on governmental proceedings and legislative decisions. Any male Athenian citizen could participate regardless of social and economic status.
  • Women were not eligible to participate
  • Became imperialistic after Persian Wars and dominated the Delian League
  • Intercity warfare led to eventual decline


900 BC
  • Geared almost entirely for warfare
    • particularly conquered neighboring city of Messenia and forced its people to become slaves, known as Helots.
  • Boys at age 7 trained to fight. Feed less which encouraged them to steal. Punished if caught.
  • Men 20-30 still lived in barracks, eventually leave and marry, but still eat together.
  • Disposed of sickly children
  • It was a crime not to get married.
  • Women played an important role and held more freedoms
  • Warred with Athens in the Peloponnesian War over control of the Delian League -Won, but victory weakened both city states.


800 bc
  • Founded by Phoenicians in Northern Africa
  • One of the first cities to use paper money -Leather like strips
  • Major trade hub
  • Very large walls 45ft tall and wide enough for a chariot to ride on top


753 bc
  • Founded by Romulus and Remus
  • Capital of the Roman Republic and much of Roman Empire.
  • Eventual home to the head of the Christian church
  • Sacked in 410 AD by Alaric I


331 bc
  • Alexandria was founded by Alexander the Great in April 331 BC
  • Alexander's general Ptolemy brought Alexander's body to Alexandria, though it was eventually lost after being separated from its burial site there.[
  • Built all at one time and laid out on a grid pattern

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  • Light House of Alexandria -More than 400ft tall, with a statue of Poseidon and mirrors to cast light
  • First museum was in Alexandria -Contained half a million scrolls of knowledge


323 AD
  • Founded by Constantine
  • Become capital of the Byzantine empire
  • Center of the Eastern Orthodox church

Key Individuals


700 BC

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  • Homer's Iliad and Odyssey are the earliest manifestation of Greek humanism and stress the Greek ideal of arete' (excellence)
  • Earliest molder of the Greek outlook and character.
  • Greeks grew up reciting his works
  • Sensitive to the suffering caused by war
  • His treatment of the gods had important religious implications


700 BC
  • in his Theogony - systematically described the family tree of the Olympian gods.


624 bc - 546 bc
  • Attempted to explain natural phenomena without reference to mythology

Solon, the Reformer

594 BC
  • Solon, a traveler and poet with a reputation for wisdom was elected chief executive of Athens.
  • Initiated a rational reform based on targeting specific behavior that was hurting the city.
    • Wanted to inspire a sense of working for the common good of the city

Pisistratus the Tyrant

546 BC
  • An aristocrat who took power from the oligarchy in Athens, and exiled those who opposed him.
  • Sought favor by building more conduits to increase water supply
  • Greatly emphasized enhancement of Athenian culture through architecture projects, sculptors and painters, and public recitals of Homeric epics. *Succeeded by Cleisthenes


507 BC
  • Cleisthenes broadens democratic institutions
  • Hoped to make Democracy the dominant form of government in Athens
  • Introduced the practice of Ostracism
  • If a person received to many votes of affluence, that person was banished from Athens for 10 years.


495 BC - 425 BC
  • Statesman, orator, and military commander
  • Athens blossomed under his leadership
  • Gave funeral speech during the Peloponnesian War highlighting Athens' greatness


484 bc - 424 bc
  • Often called the "Father of History"
  • Wrote a history of the Peloponnesian Wars.
  • Wrote a book called The Histories
  • Commented on Persian cultures as well as Greek

King Leonidus

480 BC
  • King of Sparta assembles force of 300 Spartans to fight Xeres and his Persian army at the mountain pass of Thermopylae.
  • Eventually overcome, but with immense casualties to Persian force.


469 bc - 399 bc

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Image via wikipedia

  • An enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers who was infamous for going around to famous figures and questioning them to show how little they actually knew.

  • "I know that I know nothing"

  • Regarded as a father of western philosophy and ethics

  • Sentenced to death by his peers for corrupting the youth, and creating false gods.

  • Trial portrayed in Plato's THe Last Days of Socrates


460 bc - 370 bc
  • First to come up with an Atomic Theory
  • Matter was composed of atoms which were infinitely divisible.


460 bc - 400 bc
  • Athenian historian that recognized that a work of history was a creation of the rational mind and not an expression of the poetic imagination.
  • Rejected the gods role in history

The Peloponnesian War

431 BC - 404 BC
  • War between Sparta and Athens over political disputes having arisen from the Delian League
  • Sparta defeated the Athenian navy and eventually took the city
  • Sparta dissolved the Delian League and forced Athens to destroy its walls.
  • Ended Athens' Golden Age


424 bc - 348 bc
  • A student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens
    -The first institution of higher learning

  • Wrote The Last Days of Socrates


384 bc - 322 bc
  • A Greek philosopher and student of Plato.
  • Teacher of Alexander the Great.
  • Writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of western philosophy.
  • Believed in empiricism

Phillip of Macedon

359 bc - 336 bc
  • Not Greek strictly speaking
  • Wanted to unite Macedonia & Greece
  • Respected Greece's culture and technology
  • Utilized cavalry

Alexander the Great

336 bc - 323 bc

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Image via wikipedia

  • In thirteen years of constant warfare, Alexander created a huge empire and began what would become known as the Hellenistic Age.

  • Educated by Aristotle and slept with a copy of the Iliad annotated by Aristotle under his pillow.

  • Died at age 32, presumably from a fever caused by drinking too much at a party.

  • Raised an army of 40,000 men and originally set out to take revenge on the Persians

  • Never lost a major battle

King Darius III

336 bc - 330 bc
  • Raised an army of 600,000 men to fight Alexander the Great
  • Fought at the Battle of Issus
  • Alexander defeats him and takes control of the Persian empire
  • Darius flees and Alexander pursues, but Darius is killed by his own cousin first


310 bc - 230 bc
  • Educated by Aristotle's University
  • Suggested Earth was not the center of the universe


300 bc
  • Mathematician or jerk responsible for modern day Geometry lessons that most textbooks still use today.


287 bc - 212 bc
  • Theorist, mathematician, inventor
  • Famous for lever and pulley argument and Death Ray -Also Arimedes' screw

Pyrrhus of Epirus

280 bc
  • The Roman legions were not invincible, and lost many battles in fact, but they persevered in wars such as the one against Pyrrhus, king of Epirus.
  • The Romans consolidated their victories in Italy by extending Roman citizenship to many subjects particularly in conquered cities.
  • Pyrrhus won most of his battles against the Romans, but lost so many me, it wasn't a true victory -Pyrrhic Victory


275 bc - 194 bc
  • Drew maps of the known world
  • Calculated the circumference of the world with very little error


254 bc - 184 bc
  • Roman comedian

Hannibal of Carthage

247 bc - 183 bc

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Image via wikipedia

  • Brilliant Carthage general that won numerous battles against the Romans in the Second Punic War, but was eventually overcome by Scipio Africanus at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC
  • Known for his awesome battle elephants.

Scipio Africanus

235 bc - 183 bc
  • Roman general who defeated Hannibal at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC, and ended the Second Punic War.

Antiochus IV Epiphanes

175 bc - 164 bc
  • Antiochus' efforts to force Greek culture on the Jews provoked the revolt of the Maccabees in Judea in 167 bc
  • Victory of the Jews (commemorated by Hanukkah) had profound consequences for subsequent religious history in the West.

Gaius Marius

157 bc - 86 bc
  • Elected consul in 107 BC
  • Guaranteed land to those who served in the army for 16 years.
  • Roman soldiers became more loyal to their generals than the government.


146 bc
  • A Roman censor who ended every speech with "Carthage must be destroyed!"

Lucius Sulla

138 bc - 78 bc
  • In 82 BC declares himself dictator and rules until 79 BC
  • Sets precedent that a successful general can become dictator

Gracchi Brothers

133 bc - 121 bc
  • Tribunes who fought for political reform class equality for the Plebians.
  • Tiberius and Gaius
  • Tiberius is assassinated by the Senate for trying to implement his policy reforms
  • Gaius is later killed with a multitude of his followers who took to the street to fight for reform.


115 bc - 53 bc
  • Member of 1st Triumvirate
  • Uber rich through real estate -Bought and restored burned real estate
  • Put down the slave revolt by Spartacus
  • Patron of Julius Caesar
  • Slave dealer


106 bc - 48 bc
  • Successful Roman general and member of the 1st Triumvirate

Julius Caesar

100 bc - 44 bc

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Image from wikipedia

  • Face of the 1st Triumvirate
  • Conquered all of Gaul in 58 to 50 BC
  • Writes book on commentaries of the Gallic Wars
  • Pompey doesn't want Caesar to come back in 49 BC and tells him not to cross the Rubicon -Crosses the Rubicon anyways and defeats Pompey and becomes Dictator of Rome
  • Assassinated by Brutus and Casius in 44 BC "Et tu Brute?"
  • Made elites of foreign lands citizens
  • Built new cities in captured lands for his veterans.
  • Reformed the calendar and introduced the leap year
  • July = Julius


96 bc - 55 bc
  • Epicurean philosopher

Mark Antony

83 bc - 30 bc
  • Roman politician and general
  • Member of the Second Triumvirate
  • Disagreement between Octavian and Antony erupted into civil war, the Final War of the Roman Republic, in 31 BC.
  • Antony was defeated by Octavian at the naval Battle of Actium, and in a brief land battle at Alexandria.
  • He and his lover Cleopatra committed suicide shortly thereafter.


70 bc - 19 bc
  • A Roman poet of the Augustan period most known for his work the Aeneid -Story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.


64 bc - 8 bc
  • The leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus.
  • "Captive Greece captured her rough conqueror and introduced the arts into rustic Latinum."

Augustus Caesar

63 bc - 14 ad

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  • Octavian adopted by Julius Caesar and made heir.
  • Member of the Second Triumvirate
  • Defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC *Becomes first emperor and reigns for 30 years
  • Called himself "princeps" - first citizen
  • Offered to retire in 27 BC but the Senate confirmed his rule and granted him the title "Augustus"
  • Ushers in golden age and expansion.

Herod the Great

37 bc - 4 bc
  • Rebuilt the temple in Jerusalem
  • Nasty fellow, tried to introduce Greek ideology to Jewish peoples

Jesus of Nazareth

4 bc - 36 ad

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Image via wikipedia

  • Central figure of Christianity, whom the teachings of most Christian denominations hold to be the Son of God, and is regarded as a major Prophet in Islam.
  • Born during the reign of King Herod the Great
  • Crucified by Roman Perfect Pontius Pilate
  • Introduced Lord's Supper and Baptism

Paul of Tarsus

5 ad - 67 ad
  • Began as a Pharasee
    -Persecuted Christians

  • On the road to Damascus was blinded and converted to Christianity

  • Travelled 8,000 miles spreading the Gospel

  • Wrote to churches thus the books Romans and Ephesians

Pontius Pilate

26 ad
  • Nasty fello who was particularly violent
  • Had Jesus crucified.


41 ad - 54 ad
  • Emperor that expands bureaucracy of government

Emperor Nero

54 ad - 68 ad
  • Athlete and musician
  • Blamed for the great fire in Rome
  • Built grand gardens on the burned land
  • Blamed the fire on Christians
  • Executed his own mother

Emperor Hadrian

117 ad - 138 ad
  • Good warrior and general
  • Famous for Hadrian's wall in Scotland / England


160 ad - 220 ad
  • A prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.
  • Martyrs are the "seeds of the church."
  • "What indeed has Athens to do with Jerusalem

St. Anthony

251 ad - 356 ad
  • Poor and humble
  • Became a hermit in the Egyptian desert
  • People trusted his opinion
  • Young men tried to be like him and follow him, pushing him deeper into the desert.

Emperor Diocletian

285 ad - 305 ad
  • Diocletian reorganized the empire and strengthened it but its rule became more oppressive.

St. Pachomius

290 ad - 346 ad
  • Tried to create the first monasteries for monks and nuns
  • Very strict rules and routines since he was first a soldier

Constantine the Great

306 ad - 337 ad
  • Famous for seeing crosses before the Battle at Milvian Bridge
  • Issued the Edict of Milan
  • First emperor to recognize Christianity as a legitimate religion
  • Last effective ruler of a united Roman Empire
  • He founded a new capital in the East in 323, which he named Constantinople.
  • Baptized on his death bed.

St. Jerome

340 ad - 420 ad
  • Secretary to Pope Damasus
  • Brilliant but prickly personality
  • Decided to leave Rome and built a monastery in Bethlehem
  • Wanted a latin translation of the Bible -Known as the Vulgate

St. Ambrose

340 ad - 397 ad
  • Governor of Milan, Italy
  • Riot in Cathedral and previous Bishop killed
  • Spontaneously made a Bishop
  • Good administrator and speaker
  • Exalted view of Church authority
  • Excommunicated the emperor when he killed rioters
  • Emperor is a member of the Church, not above it.

St. Augustine

354 ad - 430 ad

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  • Bishop of Hippo in Africa
  • Respected for his writings
  • Confessions
  • City of God - Church would continue to exist forever
  • Wrote against the Manicheans and then Pelagians

Pope Damasus

366 ad - 384 ad
  • Argued that Peter was the first Bishop of Rome and that he was the head of the church, thus all Roman Bishops after Peter inherited his divine authority.

Scriptural Canon

367 ad
  • List of official books of the Bible were decided upon

Emperor Theodosius I

379 ad - 395 ad
  • Makes Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire in 392 AD


390 ad - 418 ad
  • Argued against original sin

Alaric I

395 ad - 410 ad
  • King of the Visigoths
  • Raises an army to fight the Romans -Romans try to bribe him to leave them alone, works at first, then backfires
  • 410 AD Alaric comes back and lays siege to Rome

Attila the Hun

434 ad - 453 ad
  • Known as "the scourge of god."
  • Very successful leader and military general of the Huns
  • Terrified most other tribes of the time, including the Romans
  • Met Leo the 1st and decided not to attack Rome.

Pope Leo I

440 ad - 461 ad
  • Pleads with Attila for the Huns not to attack Rome

King Clovis I

466 ad - 511 ad
  • The first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes of Gaul under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs.


475 ad - 524 ad
  • Came from a wealthy and well educated Roman family.
  • Tried to pass on classical works, but didn't get very far
  • Last classical philosopher
  • Theodoric had him tortured and beaten to death with clubs for plotting against him.


476 ad - 493 ad
  • Germanic general, who in 476 AD became the first King of Italy.
  • His reign is commonly seen as marking the end of the Western Roman Empire.

St. Benedict

480 ad - 547 ad
  • Roman, left to find remote lifestyle
  • People wanted to join him as well
  • Monks wanted to make him their leader
  • He accepted, but they regretted their decision since he was too strict
  • They try to poison him
  • He survives
  • Put forth the Rule
  • Guidelines for monasteries
  • Had to be a novist for a year
  • 3 Oaths --- Vow of Poverty --- Vow of Chastity --- Vow of Obedience


485 ad - 585 ad
  • Built a personal monastery
  • Introduced a room called the scriptorium
  • Copied ancient manuscripts such as the Aeneid


493 ad - 526 ad
  • Tries to maintain Roman government system


527 ad - 565 ad
  • Emperor of the Byzantine Empire
  • Crucial in preserving Roman history, culture, and law
  • Built an enormous church in Constantinople
  • Wanted to reunite Empire
  • Belisarius was Justinian's general who was very successful in reconquering land, but ultimately could not be reunited

Pope Gregory the Great

590 ad - 604 ad
  • Wielded both great religious and political authority.
  • Beginning of Pope's increasing political role and prowess

Important Events

The Struggle of the Orders

494 bc
  • After going on strike in 494 BC, the Plebians gained the right to have their own assembly, the Council of Plebs (later the Tribal Assembly) and to elect officers known as tribunes to look out for their interests.
  • Tribunes could veto (Latin for "I forbid,") new legislation.

The Persian Wars

490 BC - 479 BC
  • Following the revolt of the Ionian Greeks against their Persian overlords, King Darius I sent a small detachment of forces to Attica.
  • In 490 BC on the plains of Marathon, the citizen army of Athens defeated the Persians
  • Ten years later, Xeres, Darius's son, organized an army of 250,000 men and more than 500 ships to conquer the Greeks.
  • 300 Spartans met them at the mountain pass of Thermopylae.
  • Themistocles destroys the Persian fleet at the Bay of Salamis.
  • In 479 BC the Spartans defeat the Persians at a land battle at Plataea, ending the war.
  • Outcome of the war propelled Athens into a golden age.
  • Led to the organization of the Delian League and Athenian Imperialism.

Battle of Marathon

490 BC
  • Hard fought Greek win
  • Runner ran to Athens to tell of victory

Battle of Salamis

480 BC
  • Athens wins naval battle against Persian forces due to better ships.

Battle of Plataea

479 BC
  • Spartans defeat Persian forces, and Persians withdrawal

Spartans defeat Persians at Plataea

479 BC

The Twelve Tables

450 bc
  • The customary laws of Roman society were committed to writing.

Tribal Assembly Binding

287 bc
  • The rulings of the Tribal Assembly were declared binding on all Romans.
  • Patricians still exercised a great deal of power through their clients however.

The Struggle with Carthage

264 bc - 146 bc
  • Encompasses the 1st and 2nd Punic Wars between Rome and Carthage for control of the Mediterranean.

The First Punic War

264 bc - 241 bc
  • Rome created a powerful navy
  • Rome fought 7 major naval battles against Carthage and won 6
  • By 241 BC they had conquered Sicily.

The Second Punic War

218 bc - 201 bc
  • Hannibal crosses the Alps to make an unexpected attack on Rome
  • Scipoi Africanus responds in kind and assaults Carthage, forcing Hannibal who was quite successful in his campaign so far, to retreat back to Carthage.
  • Second Punic war ends with Hannibal's defeat at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC by Scipio

Revolt of the Maccabees

167 bc
  • Maccabees revolted against Antiochus IV for trying to force them to adopt Greek religion and customs.
  • Jewish faith survives

Carthage Destroyed

146 bc
  • Carthage is sacked a final time and completely destroyed and the fields salted

The First Triumvirate

60 bc - 53 bc
  • The political alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar, Marcus Licinius Crassus, and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus.

The Second Triumvirate

43 bc - 33 bc
  • The official political alliance of Octavian, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, and Mark Antony.
  • An official, legally established institution, whose overwhelming power in the Roman state was given full legal sanction

Battle of Actium

31 bc
  • Octavian defeats Mark Antony and Cleopatra in Alexandria, leaving him unopposed to become emperor.

First Jewish Rebellion

66 ad - 70 ad
  • Jewish Zealots revolt against Roman rule
  • Emperor Titus destroys the temple of Jerusalem
  • Beginning of the divergence of Christianity and Judaism

The Battle of Milvian Bridge

312 ad
  • Constantine defeats Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge.
  • Also the battle where Constantine see the 3 crosses before battle

Edict of Milian

313 ad
  • Decreed by Emperor Constantine in the West and Licinius Augustus in the East in 313 AD granting religious freedom throughout the Roman Empire.

Council of Nicea

325 ad
  • Ordered by Constantine
  • Catholic church begins to take shape
  • Early Bible begins to take shape
  • Council decides that Jesus is "of one substance with the Father." -Doctrine of the Trinity

Conflict with the Visigoths

375 ad - 378 ad
  • Conflict between Visigoth Barbarians and Romans
  • Visigoths wish to move into Roman territory to escape Huns
  • Romans allow them in 375 AD
  • Visigoths regret decision due to mistreatment by Romans
  • They revolt from 364-378 AD -Emperor Valens musters an army but loses and dies at the Battle of Adrianople 378 AD.
  • Sign of Roman weakness
  • Theodosis puts down revolt finally

Christianity - State Religion

392 AD
  • Emperor Theodosius I makes Christianity the official state religion of the Roman Empire.

Sack of Rome

410 ad
  • Alaric I leads the Visigoth army to Rome and sacks it in 410 AD.
  • Rome recalls its armies back to Rome, further weakening its borders

Council of Ephesus

431 ad
  • Decide that Mary is the "mother of God."
  • Christology

Council of Chalcedon

451 ad
  • Decide that Jesus is "true God and true man."
  • Christology

Vandals sack Rome

455 ad
  • Rome is sacked for a second time by the Vandals who destroy much of the city.
  • Rome never fully recovers

Last Emperor of Rome

476 ad
  • Romulus Augustulus, the last emperor is deposed by Odoacer 476 AD

Split of West and East Church

484 ad
  • Bishop of Rome excommunicates the Bishop of Constantinople
  • Results in the Eastern Orthodox church

Art, Culture, and Institutions

Linear A

1500 BC
  • The Minoan written language. Remains untranslatable.

Bull Jumping

1400 BC
  • Minoan art reveals interesting potential customary ritual/sport of bull jumping.

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Image via www.mtsd.k12.nj.us

*ca 1400 BC

The Polis

800 BC
  • The basic unit of greek civilization was the Polis, usually translated as city- state.
  • Typically composed of an acropolis (high town) and agora (market place).
  • "Man is a 'polis' animal." - Aristotle

The Assembly

590 BC
  • Created by Solon the Reformer
  • Instituted to give every male citizen of Athens a say in government.


509 bc
  • Poor free men of Rome who had very few rights or say in the government.

The Senate

509 bc
  • Those who had served as magistrates were then eligible to serve in the Senate, which advised the consuls.


509 bc
  • The rich aristocrats of Rome who carried the majority of influence in the government.


500 BC
  • Served in the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic
  • Assisted by quaestors and praetors

The Centuriate Assembly

500 bc
  • Elected executives, called consults to one year terms


495 bc
  • Assisted Consuls with government financial affairs


495 bc
  • Assisted Consuls with judicial affairs.

The Censor

490 BC
  • Was responsible for maintaining the census, supervising public morality, and overseeing certain aspects of the government's finances
  • Determined eligibility for other offices
  • Served 18 month term

The Parthenon

447 bc - 432 bc

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Image via wikipedia

  • Located in Athens, the great temple was dedicated to Athena, the patron goddess of the city, through the efforts of Pericles.

Council of 500

400 BC
  • Council of male citizens of various socio-economic backgrounds that elected magistrates and voted on legislation proposed in Athens.
  • Originated from Solon's Council of 400

Hellenistic Thought

342 bc - 263 bc
  • Mystery Religions -> Isis and Osiris
  • Cultish, secret rituals, worship of one specific god, but could be a member of multiple other mystery religions.

  • Epicureans
    -Based of beliefs of Epicurus
    -Pursue pleasure, avoid pain.

  • Stoicism
    -Based on beliefs of Zeno
    -Man was a rational being
    *Universal laws

  • Logos = principle of reason guiding the world


330 bc
  • Belief that knowledge comes from experience and that humans begin with a blank slate.

Hellenistic Science

310 bc - 194 bc
  • During Hellenistic age, a number of pseudo-scientist philosophers made major contributions to math, science, and other such academic pursuits

Social Discontent in Rome

200 bc
  • Latifundia -Large plantations owned by rich patricians and worked by slaves.
  • The poor turned to the brothers Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus to fight for equality.


15 ad
  • Sect of Jewish faithful
  • Aggressive towards the Romans, assassinated Roman officials and helpers
  • Radicals


15 ad
  • Sect of Jewish faithful
  • Jewish monks that lived in the desert.
  • Produced and preserved the dead sea scrolls.
  • Disliked the Romans


15 ad
  • Sect of Jewish faithful
  • Future Rabis
  • Believed in the law to the T
  • Dislike the Romans but were a-political
  • Disagreed with Jesus' teachings


15 ad
  • Sect of Jewish faithful
  • Controlled the temple in Jerusalem
  • Face of Judaism to the outside world
  • Had more to lose so they worked closely with Romans
  • Instrumental in Jesus' trial and execution

The Coliseum

80 ad

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Image via wikipedia

  • Constructed under emperor Vespesian and completed under Titus
  • Held 50,000 people
  • Put on massive and grandiose shows of Gladiatorial fights, sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology.


325 ad
  • Arianism asserted that the Son of God was a subordinate entity to God the Father.

Apostolic Succession

350 ad
  • Idea that any Bishop could trace back their religious heritage from their teacher all the way back to an Apostle


354 ad
  • Swore oaths swearing they were not Christians so they wouldn't be killed.
  • Some argued they could no longer be Christians / Priests.


431 ad
  • Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine advanced by Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople from 428–431 AD
  • Belief that Christ had two loosely-united natures, divine and human


431 ad
  • Christology is concerned with the details of Jesus' ministry, his acts and teachings, to arrive at a clearer understanding of who he is in his person, and his role in salvation.


451 ad
  • Belief held by Catholic church that Christ had but a single nature, his human nature being absorbed into his divinity.


590 ad
  • As authority and wealth of the Pope increased, people became upset with this trend arguing that a church leader should be free of wealth and politics.

The Book of Pastoral Care

590 ad
  • A treatise on the responsibilities of the clergy written by Pope Gregory I around the year 590 AD, shortly after his papal inauguration.