The Missouri Compromise added Missouri to the Union as a slave state and Maine as a free state. It also created a line through the Louisiana Territory, splitting it at 33°N latitude into slave and free territory.
Northerners opposed adding another slave state because they wanted to contain the spread of slavery in general.
Annexation of Texas
December 29, 1845
Admittance of the Republic of Texas into the United States of America.
Northerners opposed the Annexation of Texas because they objected the spread of slavery and possible war with Mexico.
Southerners welcomed Texas because they wanted to spread slavery and tip the senate in favor of slave states.
Compromise of 1850
January 29, 1850
Admitted California as a free state and left Utah and New Mexico to decide whether they would be a free state or slave state. The Fugitive Slave Law was passed.
The North has mixed feelings, they got the balance in the Senate back with California being added as a free state. They refused to enforced the Fugitive Slave Law.
The South agreed with the Fugitive Slave Law and gladly returned runaway slaves to their owner.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
June 5, 1852
The book, "Uncle Tom's Cabin" published in 1852 by Harriet-Beecher Stowe. It is an anti-slavery novel that told the story of the effect slavery had on African Americans. It showed the cruel reality of slavery and humanity of slaves. It woke up many Americans to the horrors of slavery.
This book made the North massively accepting of anti-slavery candidates like Abraham Lincoln.
Southerners worked overtime, they upped the propaganda just to defend the institution of slavery. They even banned the book in some places.
Kansas Nebraska act
May 30, 1854
The Kansas-Nebraska Act allowed people in the Kansas and Nebraska territories to vote by popular sovereignty whether it would be a slave or free state.
This infuriated the North because it violated the Missouri Compromise. Northerners also violated the Fugitive Slave Law because they felt that since the Missouri Compromise was being ignored, the Compromise of 1850 could be too.
Dred Scott Case
March 6, 1857
Dred Scott was a former slave whose master took him to a free state. After living there for over a decade, he decided to start a legal battle that would last for years. This started when he decided to sue the institution of slavery. Scott lost the case when they decided that he was not entitled to freedom because black people could never be citizens.
Northerners saw this as Southerners trying to spread their ideas of slavery.
Southerners approved the decision, believing Congress did not have the control over the slavery, but instead, the states did.
John Brown's Raid
October 16, 1859 - October 18, 1859
On October 16th, 1859, John Brown raided a federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virgina, in hopes of starting a slave revolt. Brown was captured two days later and tried and put to death for treason.
Northerners showed respect to John Brown because he showed great dignity during his trial, and even wrong a song about him.
Southerners were furious that the North was praising a man who started a slave revolt. They saw it as an attack on their livelihood.
Election of Abraham Lincoln
November 6, 1860
The Election of Abraham Lincoln was odd because it showed that even though there were more Southern states, and none of them voted for Lincoln, he won. They would always be out voted by the North. This was because of the higher population. The election would eventually anger the Southern states to secede. This would be the start of the American Civil War.
Northerners were happy to have a bigger day than the South in the political domain. Having the president elected was a big win for them.
The South was frustrated with the results of the election meaning the South could never win an election, which cause eventual secession.
Seccession of South Carolina
December 20, 1860
In early November of 1860, a General Assembly was called amongst many Southern states to consider secession. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina was the first state to declare secession.
The North thought it was preposterous, they wanted to stay as a union, and as one country. They were mostly against going to war.
Southerners were fine with the idea of secession. They would get to keep their slaves and would not be “oppressed” by their Northern neighbors. They could govern how they like.