Middle Ages


The Battle of Tours (Poitiers)


Frankish Mayor Charles Martel "The Hammer" (Carolingian Dynasty) defeats Muslim raiders led by Abd al-Rahman of Spain
This stops the advancement of the Moors into Northern Europe
Map #1


768 - 814

Conquers large area of Western Europe, gaining favor and support of the Roman Church
800- Pope Leo III names him Emperor of the West, making Charlemagne's empire the largest since the Roman Empire and setting the stage for the Holy Roman Empire a century and a half later

Treaty of Verdon- Holy Roman Empire


Divides Charlemagne's large empire among his three grandsons

Alfred the Great

871 - 899

defends England from viking invasions and assumes the throne
He is the first king of a united England

Holy Roman Empire

962 - 1806

Otto the Great is crowned Holy Roman Emperor. The Empire is seen as an extension of the Western Roman Empire of Charlemagne

Eric the Red


exiled from Iceland he begins Scandinavian colonization of Greenland

The High Middle Ages

1000 - 1299

Ideal Society contains three mutually supportive parts:
1. those who fight
2. those who pray
3. those who work
Feudalism- political system, relationship of power between powerful individuals.
-On top- King,
-Underneath- nobility, fighters given land by King in order to receive their loyalty but the land must go back to king once he dies
-Under that- lords loaning their land to lesser knights. Weakness- loyalty lies with whoever gives land

Manorialism- local lords fought and protected small villages by taking their land and creating a “Manor”. So everyone has to work for the lord in order to be protected

La Reconquista

1000 - 1492

see map # 8
Isabel of Castilla and Ferdinand II of Aragon (The Catholic Monarchs), unite Spain with their marriage, making "Catholicism" (universal) the official religion of the country and sparking the expulsion of Moors and Jews

William the Conqueror

1066 - 1087

King William of the Normans invaded England and killed the reigning English King Harold II
During this time, the formation of a pidgin language occurs in order to communicate between the Normans and the Saxons. This will eventually evolve into modern English.

Battle of Hastings

October 14 1066

During the Norman Conquest of England, between the Norman-French army of Duke William II of Normandy and the English army under King Harold II. It is here William killed Harold and marks the turning point in William's conquest of England

Notre Dame

1163 - 1250

Gothic Architecture (Muslim influence)
Abbot Suger changes the way they build churches in France, making the walls of the building not support the weight allowing curtain walls with more space inside to awe pilgrims

The 100 Years War

1338 - 1453

Series of wars fought by various English and French Kings due to confusion of feudalism (who owns who’s allegiance)

Feudalism- Emperor at the top (title handed down since Charlemagne) Vassel- person given land by Emperor, King, or Nobel… owes allegiance to whoever gave him the land

The Hundred Years War had its roots back to William the Conqueror in 1066

English controlled the Aquitaine, launched a full on attack of French (they still have the Pope living in France)

When it seemed like the English were going to defeat the French, Joan of Arc rallies the French troops turning the tide

1453- represents the end of warfare, finally allows France to develop as a nation state

The Black Death

1348 - 1350

The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, peaking in Europe between 1348 and 1350, and killing between 75 million and 200 million people.
The Black Death is thought to have started in China or central Asia.[6] It then travelled along the Silk Road and reached the Crimea by 1346. From there, it was probably carried by Oriental rat fleas living on the black rats that were regular passengers on merchant ships. Spreading throughout the Mediterranean and Europe, the Black Death is estimated to have killed 30 to 60 percent of Europe's population.

Battle at Agincourt


French knights met British archers with only long bows, the British defeated the French armored knights, considered to be the end of Medieval Warfare with knights on horseback, much cheaper and more effective to arm troops with long bows


Climate Warming

700 - 1200

Results in increased farming, population booms and technological advancements
see map #4

Climate Change- Vikings

900 - 1000

Mass migrations of the Vikings (from Scandinavia)
-pagans who eventually accept Western Christianity, raiders and traders and sea fairers
Russ Vikings settle in Russia
Norman Vikings settle in France
Magyars (non-indoeuropeans, from central Asia) settle in Hungary

Medieval Maximum

1000 - 1200

Climate is at an all time high resulting in population booms, farming technologies and mass migrations

Climate Drops

1302 - 1348

Climate falls dramatically
Increases rainfall across Asia and Europe
Ganges and Yangtze Rivers flood, causing massive rat migrations from the river valleys into civilized towns in Asia


Synod of Clermont


Pope Urban II wants to regain Jerusalem for Christianity and launches the crusades

First Crusade

1096 - 1099

see map #5
Jerusalem is taken from the Muslims urged on by Pope Urban II
French Kings rallied the troops, walked through Europe to Constantinople where they would then set sail through modern day turkey, meeting hostility from the Seljuks
1099- Christians/ crusaders arrived in Jerusalem and slaughtered the entire city’s population and created a string of Christian settlements along the Western Mediterranean coast of the Middle East
*Church begins promoting religious pilgrimages encourage the growth of taverns shops and romanesque churches

1099- Jerusalem falls important date

Third Crusade

1189 - 1192

Barbosa, Richard the Lionhearted ( King Richard from Robin Hood) and Philip were captured
September 2, 1192- Richard finalized a treaty with Saladin by which Jerusalem would remain under Muslim control, but which also allowed unarmed Christian pilgrims and merchants to visit the city.
The successes of the Third Crusade would allow the Crusaders to maintain a considerable kingdom based in Cyprus and the Syrian coast.
Its failure to recapture Jerusalem would lead to the call for a Fourth Crusade six years later.

Fourth Crusade

1202 - 1204

Pope Innocent III- possibly the most powerful pope of all time, manages to have control over European kings
-determined to be leader of Eastern Christians
4th crusade uses Venice as the prime location for their naval expertise and merchants who are rivals of Byzantine merchants
Zara- Byzantine port, Crusaders sacked the city because they are Eastern Christians, pretended they were trying to get to Jerusalem when they actually sat in Constantinople and sacked the city on purpose

Bernard St. Dominic


Southern France- group of "heretics" named Cathers

Bernard St. Dominic launched a crusade to Southern France decimating the Cather population and burning their books

The Babylonian Captivity

1309 - 1376

see map #7
period of the Avignon papacy

European major centers of power: English, French and German Emperor all go after each other because they no long have the crusades to ban them together. They are all trying to control the pope and the pope is trying to control all of them.

1309- French and Italians attack the Pope’s residence in Rome
Pope Boniface VIII moves his home to the South of France, Avignon- this period is known as “The Babylonian Captivity”

Middle East and Africa

Battle of Manzikert

19 August 1071

Armenia- established Seljuk Turkish control of Jerusalem, prohibiting Christians from making pilgrimages to Jerusalem
-Turks (led by Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan) drove Byzantines out of Asia and they fled to the Balkans
-Seljuks hated the Christians and banned them from Jerusalem


1171 - 1193

Saladin (Kurd, from northern Iraq) worked for the Seljuks, captured Egypt and built a Kingdom

Saladin defeated the crusaders badly and slaughtered all the knights that had surrendered triggering the 3rd crusade

Eastern Europe and Asia

Byzantine Empire

300 - 1453

Started by Emperor Constantine, ended with Sultan Mehmet II the Conqueror

Mongolian Expanision

1150 - 1250

see map #6
Mongolians- semi nomadic people
Every Mongol fighter had 5 ponies
Large population boom by 1200 they have the largest army in the world- 3 million people
Responsible for greatest human death toll in all of human history

Ming Dynasty

1368 - 1644


Sultan Mehmet II the Conqueror

1451 - 1481

Leader of the Ottoman Turks when they seize Constantinople ending the Byzantine Empire (from Constantine 300AD to 1453)