All of Italy ruled by either signori or oligarchies
This is significant because of how government in Italy (and most of Europe) will transition from oligarchy to eventual democracy.
These show labor unrest and caused a shake in the political establishment.
Venice goes to war with Milan
This is an example of the balance of power within the Italian city-states because the other city-states joined both sides to help make peace.
Peace Treaty at Lodi
This shows the effectiveness of Italian City-States’ balance of power.
Louis XI and France invade Burgundy
This strengthened the French monarchy.
With Papal support, Ferdinand and Isabella set up tribunals
This began the inquisition as the tribunals were made to find and punish Jewish persons.
Dominican friar Girolamo Savanaro gives a series of sermons against Florence
1491 - 1494
Specifically, he attacked Florentine society. This helped contribute to the fall of the Medici family.
Ferdinand and Isabella enter Granada
This marked the end of the Inquisition.
Invasion of Italy by Charles VII
This brought international attention to Italy and led to the establishment of republican government.
League of Cambrai is formed
Formed by Louis XII, the Pope, and the German emperor, Maximilian. It was intended to take Venice’s mainland possessions.
Papal Chancellery is finished
This is an example of an architectural achievement of the Renaissance.
Machiavelli's The Prince is published
It is later used as justification of monarchies and ruthless behavior to accomplish a needed goal.
Concordat of Bologna
This rescinded the Pragmatic Sanction’s idea of the council being more powerful than the Pope. In return, France gained more control over church policies within the kingdom.
Habsburg-Valois Wars begin
These involved Italy, France, Germany in an international conflict. The fighting was done in Italy, hence the reason for their name being stated in the aforementioned list.
Charles V takes Rome
This illustrates the suffering Italy underwent due to constant warfare.
Castiglione's The Courtier is published
This discussed the qualities an ideal gentleman possesses.
Phillip II brings Portugal under Spanish Crown
This politically united the Iberian Peninsula.
Marriage of Maximilian I of Habsburg and Mary of Burgundy
This made the Habsburgs an international power for years to come.
Ecumenical Council meets in Rome
1512 - 1517
This demonstrated earnest efforts by church leaders to reform.
Lateran Council meets
This shows an early and small attempt at Church reform
Luther's 95 Theses are posted
These stirred emotions and caused much debate and controversy.
Luther Publicly denounces infallibility of General Council and the Pope
Ulrich Zwingli announces he will preach from Erasmus' New Testament
This shows the early impact of revolutionary religious ideas.
Luther publishes Appeal to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation
In which, Luther argued for moral reform and for princes to reject papal authority. It shows Luther’s influence and impact on politics.
Sweden becomes independent
This affected future European affairs.
Suppressed peasant revolts
This shows the Lutheran belief in subjugation of peoples to a higher power (in this case, the State).
German and Spanish troops attack Rome
This ended the High Renaissance in Rome.
Confession of Augsburg
This outlined and solidified Lutheran thought.
Act in Restraint of Appeals enacted in England
This ended judicial appeals to the Papacy. It shows the result of tensions between the Church and the State.
Supremacy Act enacted in England
This made the king the head of the English Church, again showing the results of Church v. State tensions.
Ursuline Order of Nuns is founded
This exemplified the idea of combating heresy through education.
Ireland leaves Catholic Church for the Anglican Church
Some remained Catholic in secret. This situation shows the tensions between the Catholic and Anglican faiths.
Calvin begins work on the city of Geneva
This would soon be a model for all 16th century Protestant reformers.
Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office is created by Pope Paul II
This gave the Church more control over the Counter Reformation.
Council of Trent
1545 - 1563
This is an example of genuine reform efforts by the Catholic Church.
Ignatius Loyola's Spiritual Exercises is Published
These stressed reform and spiritual piety, major tenets of Jesuit belief.
Book of Common Prayer is published
This outlined the Church of England’s services and further established Anglicanism as a legitimate religion.
Peace of Augsburg
This recognized Lutheranism. Also, princes were given power to choose their territory’s religion. This caused northern territories to be mostly Lutheran and southern territories to be mostly Catholic.
Elizabeth becomes Queen of England
This ushered in a period of relative religious stability.
Scottish Parliament rejects Papal authority
This illustrated the far-reaching effects of the Protestant Revolution as well as the instability of the Catholic Church.
The Thirty-Nine Articles are published
These outlined Anglican beliefs. This shows Elizabeth’s religious prowess, especially in the stabilization of religion.
Tridentine Decree of Tametsi
This ended secret marriages. Thus it ended a large social problem. It is a good example of one of the Council of Trent’s accomplishments.
Canon are fully developed
These are soon mounted on ships, giving Europeans a strong naval advantage over other continents.
Portugal takes Arab city of Cueta
Thus begins European overseas exploration and conquest.
Le Havre becomes newest port city in France
This is an example of the increased trade with, and in, France.
European slave trade begins
Obviously, slavery is economically, socially, and politically important for generations to come.
Magellan's Expedition returns
This proved Earth is round and incredibly large.
Calvin's Institutes is published
It received much French attention, partly because it was written in French, not Latin. This helps to explain Calvinism’s popularity in France.
Francis I centralizes France
Francis I places all of France under jurisdiction of the law courts and making French the national language. Centralization helped to strengthen the monarchy.
Poosi silver mines open in Peru
They are operate under Spanish control. They soon become the richest silver mines in the New World. They added to Spain’s large bullion supply which may have caused Spain’s later struggle with inflation and bankruptcy.
Around 10% of France is Calvinist at this point
This shows Calvinism’s impact on French society.
High grain prices cause Calvinist revolt
Revolt against “false” religious symbols, like churches. This shows the discontent of Calvinists and their tension with the old and tired traditions of Catholicism.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
This led to the War of the Three Henrys. It showed tensions between French Huguenots and French Catholics.
Union of Utrecht declares independence from Spain
This is important due to the Dutch rise to economic prestige in the years to come.
Mary Queen of Scots is beheaded
She is beheaded because of her implication in a plot to bring England back into union with Catholic Europe. This shows the religious tension of the time.
England defeats Spanish Armada
This blocked Philip II’s goal of religiously uniting Europe.
Edict of Nantes
This granted liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship to Huguenots. This temporarily restored peace in France.
Authorized Bible is published
This provided an example of English vernacular of the 17th century. It shows the Anglican and Puritan value of all people reading the scripture (many people could acquire and understand this text).
Defenestration of Prague
This began the Thirty Years’ War, involving many European countries in a conflict that would have great international effects.
Peace of Westphalia
This ended the Thirty Years’ War and marked the end of medieval ideal (i.e. one unified society under a Christian ruler).
Dutch are dominant economic force at this time
This shows the importance of overseas trade (the Dutch were, in part, economically sound because of the Dutch East India Company).
Henry IV begins rule over disoriented France
France’s wrecked state shows the potential for a strong leader to unify the state under his autonomous control.
Richelieu is appointed to Council of Ministers
This set in motion his rise to power in France and his high involvement in promoting absolutism.
Charles I dissolves Parliament
This led to the long parliament which limited Charles’ power.
French Academy is satrted
Richelieu pushed them to standardize the French language, showing the Academy's political purposes.
1648 - 1653
This was a series of civil wars in France. They show tensions between common people and government officials who sought increased revenue.
Military government in England collapses
This led to the restoration of the monarchy in 1660.
Charles I is executed
This created a republican government and weakened the idea of divine right monarchies.
Treaty of the Pyrenees
This marked the end of Spain as a great power.
François-Michel le Tellier becomes French Secretary of State for War
He created a state-run army. This army allowed Louis XIV to engage in many costly wars.
Louis XIV imposes new taxes on French citzenry
This incited an uprising in Bordeaux. This appears to be a glimpse of what was to come (i.e. French Revolution).
France is leading the world in Industrial productivity
This shows the success of Colbert’s policies.
1688 - 1689
This established sovereignty between King and Parliament.
Grand Alliance forms against Louis XIV
This shows the European fear of an all-powerful France. Also, it sort of demonstrates the balance-of-power principle.
Peace of Utrecht
This had many international effects. The most important being its demonstration of the balance-of-power principle in action.
France is on the brink of bankruptcy
This shows the results of Louis XIV’s costly expenditures.
Ivan the Terrible's wife, Anastasia, dies
This led Ivan to a rage, striking down many peoples. The Boyars were the most impacted by Ivan.
Suleiman the magnificent dies
This greatly weakened the Ottoman state. Thus, this illustrated his importance and necessity to a healthy and expanding Ottoman state.
Ivan the Terrible dies
This created a period of power-struggle and violence, showing the need for a strong leader.
Time of Troubles in Russia
1598 - 1613
This ended with Michael Romanov seizing power.
Michael Romanov becomes Tsar of Russia
This began the re-establishment of a tsarist autocracy.
Habsburgs defeat Protestants at Battle of White Mountain
This reduced the power of the Bohemian Estates.
Nikon begins religious reforms in Russia
This began a period of high religious tension in Russia.
Hereditary subjugation begins in Prussia
This increased tensions between peasants and their lords.
Construction of Schönbrunn Palace begins
This shows the importance of palaces as power symbols. It also shows the influence that Versailles had on other nations.
Peter the Great founds St. Petersburg
This shows his influence but further, it provided him with a canvas he could paint however he liked (i.e. Bring as much Western influence as he saw fit).
Issued by Charles I, this showed a desire to maintain absolutism
City of Karlsruhe is founded
This shows the importance of palaces and absolutism. Also, it shows their centrality to the life and society of citizens.
Copernicus' On the Theory of Heavenly Spheres is published
This transformed contemporary thought on the arrangement of the universe and led to tensions between science and religion.
Galileo's Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World is published
This sparked controversy and revealed the tensions between new and old thought at the time.
Royal Society of London is founded
This society helped to spread and advance ideas of the Scientific Revolution.
Newton publishes Prinipcia
This compiled many of his ideas, including universal gravitation, into one singular piece.
Locke publishes the Essay Concerning Human Understanding
This provided inspiration for the Enlightenment. It also presented a counter to Cartesian Dualism.
France institutes a form of separation of powers
The High Courts of France were given the right to evaluate decrees before they became law. This shows France's use of separation of powers, an important Enlightenment contribution to politics. Thus, it shows the Enlightenment's impact on politics.
This caused Catherine the Great to grant nobles absolute control over their serfs. This went against Enlightenment thought. Thus, some do not see Catherine as a true Enlightened Despot.
Montesquieu publishes The Spirit of the Laws
This shows the disdain for, and tiredness of, absolutist governments.
Seven Years' War begins
This was another test of Prussian military prowess. It ended with Frederick the Great re-evaluating his rule and becoming more committed to Enlightenment ideals.
Rousseau publishes The Social Contract
This presented the idea of the General Will, which would later be used by Democrats and Nationalists to support their positions.
The Encyclopedia is published
This comprised many ideas of the time into a single work. It's size shows how much knowledge had been gained during the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment.
Catherine the Great attempts to create a more just law code
This is an example of her using Enlightened ideals to govern. Thus, some call her an Enlightened Despot.
Around 2,600 literary works being published annually in Germany
This shows the increase in the European market for books.
Navigation Acts begin
These show the British desire to increase military power and national wealth. Also, they are the beginnings of tensions between the colonies and Great Britain.
English seizure of New Amsterdam
This marked the pit of the decline in Dutch economic prowess and also marked England's rise.
Around half of English farmland is enclosed
This shows one of the effects of the Agricultural Revolution.
Population of Europe growing at a high rate
This shows the effect of the population explosion of the 18th century in Europe.
Urban manufacturing privileges in France are lessened
This shows a commitment to rural industries (i.e. the Cottage Industry).
Spain receives Louisiana from France
This would lead to Spain spreading their influence out west as far as California. This had a great impact on the development of the United States.
Treaty of Paris
This marked Britain's rise to naval dominance and colonial and trading monopolization.
Abolitionist movement begins in Great Britain
This was the first mass, peaceful political movement in British history, showing that change could be sought after without using violence.
Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations is published
Written by Adam Smith, this denounced contemporary mercantilism and set the foundation for modern economics.
George Crompton invents the mule for cotton spinning
This illustrates one of the many technological improvements made during this period.
Elementary school attendance becomes mandatory in Prussia
This shows the growing interest in children and their well-being.
Government begins operating foundling homes
This shows the dire need for such institutions. In turn, it shows the large number of abandoned children.
John Wesley's Journal is published
This depicted his conversion which was necessary and important to the spread of Methodism, which he founded.
Madame Coudroy's Manual on the Art of Chuildbirth is published
This shows once again an increased interest into affairs regarding children.
Rousseau's Emile is published
This advocated education for children, another example of the rising interest in caring for children.
Jesuits are kicked out of France
This shows religious and political tensions of time.
Austria takes legal action against overlaying
This shows government opposition to child-neglect. This is another example of an increase in the care for children.
Philippe Pinel advocates better treatment of mental patients
This demonstrated the increased value of social and health care.
Edward Jenner invents smallpox vaccine
This is an example of a medicinal and scientific achievement of the time.
Edward Jenner's results are published
This allowed for widespread distribution of his findings. It promoted further discoveries which helped shape the world of medicine and science.
England begins ruling with a representative government
This showed Europe how a representative government could function and that monarchies were not the only form of successful rule.
Britain places a standing army in the colonies
This began tensions between the colonies and the British.
This increased tensions between the colonies and the British.
First Continental Congress meets
This showed that the colonies were able to create an organized opposition to British rule.
American Revolutionary War begins
This marked the start of a war that would forever alter the course of the world.
Thomas Paine publishes Common Sense
This increased public support for the war for independence.
Declaration of Independence
This outlined the reasons for independence and stated the basic rights of humans.
Proposed tax increase in France does not receive enough support
France was forced to pay for the American Revolution with loans from other nations, beginning the accumulation of their insurmountable debt.
France allies with the colonies
This was very important to the success of the colonies. It also led to the Spanish and the Dutch joining the colonial cause in 1779 and 1780, respectively.
Treaty of Paris
This brought independence to the colonies. More importantly, it showed European countries, like France, that revolution was possible. If the indomitable Britain could be taken down, who couldn't?
France faced with no alternative but to increase taxes
This led to many social/political demands being made in France.
French Notables demand a meeting of the Estates General
The Notables wanted the Estates General to meet to discuss tax reform. This would be there first meeting since 1614. Thus, odd behaviors in France were beginning: a revolution may be coming.
Meeting to discuss a constitution, the delegates sparked much debate over the structure of the new government. This was the first problem that the newly independent nation faced.
Louis XVI calls a meeting of the Estates General
This shows Louis XVI's succumbing to popular demands; the monarchy is weakening.
Bill of Rights
This is an example of classical liberalism in practice. Also, it showed how the new nation overcame one of it's first problems.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
This outlined basic human rights as well as increased public support for the revolution.
Joseph Sieyès' What is the Third Estate is published
This outlined the problems with, and solutions to, the class divisions in France. Very anti-nobility and pro-Third Estate?, this work increased revolutionary fervor among the lowest class.
Storming of the Bastille
This shows that the revolutionaries were serious in their desire for change.
Louis XVI accepts constitutional monarchy
This was a big win for the revolutionaries.
Declaration of Pillnitz
Formed by Austria and Prussia, this was a big blow to the revolutionary France. It stated that Austria and Prussia would not hesitate to intervene if necessary.
France begins War against Tyranny in other nations
This led to much fighting and violence in France and Europe.
Mary Wollstonecraft's A Vindication of the Rights of Woman is published
This was an early piece of feminist literature. It also influenced and increased revolutionary fervor.
Louis XVI is guillotined
This was the symbolic death of the French monarchy, fueling further the revolutionary fire.
Reign of Terror
1793 - 1794
This reinforced fears that the revolution had only replaced a weak king with a violent dictatorship.
France is beating the First Coalition
France's efforts during this fight are a great example of the principle of total war.
Attempted working class revolt
This failed revolt knocked the working class out of politics until around 1830.
Rural French women work to bring back Catholicism and open worship
1796 - 1801
This demonstrates the desire of many to return to a structured, normal state of affairs after such a disorienting revolution.
Treaty of Amiens
Napoleon's early foreign policy effort. This would lead to many wars and lots of territorial expansion.
Civil Code of 1804
This granted equality for to all men before the law. It also assured the security of private property and wealth. The exclusion of women shows that sexism was still prevalent despite a revolution.
Concordat of 1801
Napoleon gave religious freedom to French Catholics in exchange for increased political power. This shows Napoleon's prowess in foreign affairs.
Napoleon abdicates throne
This shows the dominance of the other European powers; They were able to de-throne the all-mighty Napoleon.
Napoleon is defeated at Waterloo
This assured the end of napoleon's rule; He was now done for good.
Cotton-spinning jenny and water frame are invented
These two advances in textile technology marked the beginning of a large growth of the textile industry.
James Watt patents his steam engine
This steam engine was more efficient than the ones made by Savery and Newcomen. It showed that inventions could be perform well practically and not just in a laboratory.
Canal making boom in Britain
1770 - 1780
This decade witnessed the growth of many canals, providing better transport of raw materials essential to Britain's Industrial Revolution.
Weavers' pay rises
Weavers became some of the best-paid workers in England, attracting many rural workers to transfer over to factory life.
Essay on the Principle of Population is published by Thomas Malthus
This is an example of contemporary fear of overpopulation. It proposed a traditional solution of marrying late and refraining from producing many kids.
These outlawed unions and strikes in England, showing the beginnings of labor v. capitalist tensions.
Use of Pauper apprentices is forbidden by English Parliament
This was an early attempt at labor reform.
Attacking factories in northern England, these workers showed the tensions between labor and capitalists. Also, it displays the anger some felt toward new machines replacing them at work.
John Cockerill purchases a summer palace at Leige
Many Brits escaped to this palace and shared industrial "secrets" to the men at this palace in Belgium. This illustrates one of the ways in which industrialization spread to other nations despite Britain's attempts at keeping it to themselves.
Geroge Stephenson's locomotive, the Rocket, is finished
This began the rail road boom, which provided cheap, reliable overland shipping of freight to European nations.
Cotton Industry accounts for 22% of Britain's industrial production
This showed the immense success of the industrial Revolution in Britain and it's impact on the cotton textile industry in particular.
Factory Act of 1833
Limiting the workday of children, this act shows later attempts at labor reform as well as the growing realization of the dangerous/poor working conditions in mines and factories.
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union is formed
Founded by reformer Robert Owen, this union showed the desire to align labor into one large, powerful group to combat capitalists. However, it was not successful and led to formation of smaller unions.
Mines Act of 1842
This was another example of labor reform. It prohibited women and children under 10 from working in the mines. This is also an example of society placing women and children in the same category, which could possibly be seen as a cause of sexism.
The Crystal Palace hosts the Great Exhibition
This allowed for Britain to show the world their industrial accomplishments.
Britain is producing 20% of the world's industrial goods
This shows the success of Britain's industrial revolution and their ascent to the top of the industrial world.
Congress of Vienna
This congress achieved a lasting peace, and it also showed the balance of power principle in action.
Holy Alliance is formed
Formed by Austria, Prussia, and Russia, this symbolized their fight against revolutionary and liberal movements.
These were issued to suppress revolutionary movements in Europe. They show the tensions between liberalists/revolutionaries and autocratic regimes.
Revolt in Greece
This revolt ended with Greek independence. It showed that nationalist feelings could lead to a revolution and eventual independence: The Holy Alliance were not unstoppable.
Reform Bill of 1832
This caused an increase in the number of voters in Britain. It also gave power to the House of Commons and gave a voice to many residents of new industrial areas. This showed that political power could be shifted and thus urged groups (House of Lords) to not be too power-hungry.
Louis Blanc's Organization of Work is published
Blanc argued that workers should demand universal male suffrage. This shows one of the major revolutionary ideas of the time as well as the labor tensions of the period.
First French Republic is formed
Headed by a ten-man executive committee, this provisional republic of France demonstrated the unrest that the populous felt toward the age-old monarchy.
Louis Napoleon is elected to power in France
The election of Louis Napoleon marked the start of a somewhat authoritative government. However, this shows the desire of upper level French citizens to attain order and structure.
The Communist Manifesto is published
Written by Karl Marx and Friedreich Engels, this work became the bible for socialists. It was used to justify many revolutionary movements during this, and many other, periods.
Unification of German states fails
Prussia was forced by Russia and Austria to renounce its plans to unite the German states. This shows that revolutions were not as plausible in the German states.