This is significant because of how government in Italy (and most of Europe) will transition from oligarchy to eventual democracy.
These show labor unrest and caused a shake in the political establishment.
This is an example of the balance of power within the Italian city-states because the other city-states joined both sides to help make peace.
This shows the effectiveness of Italian City-States’ balance of power.
This strengthened the French monarchy.
This began the inquisition as the tribunals were made to find and punish Jewish persons.
Specifically, he attacked Florentine society. This helped contribute to the fall of the Medici family.
This marked the end of the Inquisition.
This brought international attention to Italy and led to the establishment of republican government.
Formed by Louis XII, the Pope, and the German emperor, Maximilian. It was intended to take Venice’s mainland possessions.
This is an example of an architectural achievement of the Renaissance.
It is later used as justification of monarchies and ruthless behavior to accomplish a needed goal.
This rescinded the Pragmatic Sanction’s idea of the council being more powerful than the Pope. In return, France gained more control over church policies within the kingdom.
These involved Italy, France, Germany in an international conflict. The fighting was done in Italy, hence the reason for their name being stated in the aforementioned list.
This illustrates the suffering Italy underwent due to constant warfare.
This discussed the qualities an ideal gentleman possesses.
This politically united the Iberian Peninsula.
This made the Habsburgs an international power for years to come.
This shows an early and small attempt at Church reform
This demonstrated earnest efforts by church leaders to reform.
These stirred emotions and caused much debate and controversy.
This shows the early impact of revolutionary religious ideas.
In which, Luther argued for moral reform and for princes to reject papal authority. It shows Luther’s influence and impact on politics.
This affected future European affairs.
This shows the Lutheran belief in subjugation of peoples to a higher power (in this case, the State).
This ended the High Renaissance in Rome.
This outlined and solidified Lutheran thought.
This ended judicial appeals to the Papacy. It shows the result of tensions between the Church and the State.
This made the king the head of the English Church, again showing the results of Church v. State tensions.
This exemplified the idea of combating heresy through education.
Some remained Catholic in secret. This situation shows the tensions between the Catholic and Anglican faiths.
This would soon be a model for all 16th century Protestant reformers.
This gave the Church more control over the Counter Reformation.
This is an example of genuine reform efforts by the Catholic Church.
These stressed reform and spiritual piety, major tenets of Jesuit belief.
This outlined the Church of England’s services and further established Anglicanism as a legitimate religion.
This recognized Lutheranism. Also, princes were given power to choose their territory’s religion. This caused northern territories to be mostly Lutheran and southern territories to be mostly Catholic.
This ushered in a period of relative religious stability.
This illustrated the far-reaching effects of the Protestant Revolution as well as the instability of the Catholic Church.
This ended secret marriages. Thus it ended a large social problem. It is a good example of one of the Council of Trent’s accomplishments.
These outlined Anglican beliefs. This shows Elizabeth’s religious prowess, especially in the stabilization of religion.
These are soon mounted on ships, giving Europeans a strong naval advantage over other continents.
Thus begins European overseas exploration and conquest.
This is an example of the increased trade with, and in, France.
Obviously, slavery is economically, socially, and politically important for generations to come.
This proved Earth is round and incredibly large.
It received much French attention, partly because it was written in French, not Latin. This helps to explain Calvinism’s popularity in France.
Francis I places all of France under jurisdiction of the law courts and making French the national language. Centralization helped to strengthen the monarchy.
They are operate under Spanish control. They soon become the richest silver mines in the New World. They added to Spain’s large bullion supply which may have caused Spain’s later struggle with inflation and bankruptcy.
This shows Calvinism’s impact on French society.
Revolt against “false” religious symbols, like churches. This shows the discontent of Calvinists and their tension with the old and tired traditions of Catholicism.
This led to the War of the Three Henrys. It showed tensions between French Huguenots and French Catholics.
This is important due to the Dutch rise to economic prestige in the years to come.
She is beheaded because of her implication in a plot to bring England back into union with Catholic Europe. This shows the religious tension of the time.
This blocked Philip II’s goal of religiously uniting Europe.
This granted liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship to Huguenots. This temporarily restored peace in France.
This provided an example of English vernacular of the 17th century. It shows the Anglican and Puritan value of all people reading the scripture (many people could acquire and understand this text).
This began the Thirty Years’ War, involving many European countries in a conflict that would have great international effects.
This ended the Thirty Years’ War and marked the end of medieval ideal (i.e. one unified society under a Christian ruler).
This shows the importance of overseas trade (the Dutch were, in part, economically sound because of the Dutch East India Company).
France’s wrecked state shows the potential for a strong leader to unify the state under his autonomous control.
This set in motion his rise to power in France and his high involvement in promoting absolutism.
This led to the long parliament which limited Charles’ power.
Richelieu pushed them to standardize the French language, showing the Academy's political purposes.
This was a series of civil wars in France. They show tensions between common people and government officials who sought increased revenue.
This led to the restoration of the monarchy in 1660.
This created a republican government and weakened the idea of divine right monarchies.
This marked the end of Spain as a great power.
He created a state-run army. This army allowed Louis XIV to engage in many costly wars.
This incited an uprising in Bordeaux. This appears to be a glimpse of what was to come (i.e. French Revolution).
This shows the success of Colbert’s policies.
This established sovereignty between King and Parliament.
This shows the European fear of an all-powerful France. Also, it sort of demonstrates the balance-of-power principle.
This had many international effects. The most important being its demonstration of the balance-of-power principle in action.
This shows the results of Louis XIV’s costly expenditures.
This led Ivan to a rage, striking down many peoples. The Boyars were the most impacted by Ivan.
This greatly weakened the Ottoman state. Thus, this illustrated his importance and necessity to a healthy and expanding Ottoman state.
This created a period of power-struggle and violence, showing the need for a strong leader.
This ended with Michael Romanov seizing power.
This began the re-establishment of a tsarist autocracy.
This reduced the power of the Bohemian Estates.
This began a period of high religious tension in Russia.
This increased tensions between peasants and their lords.
This shows the importance of palaces as power symbols. It also shows the influence that Versailles had on other nations.
This shows his influence but further, it provided him with a canvas he could paint however he liked (i.e. Bring as much Western influence as he saw fit).
Issued by Charles I, this showed a desire to maintain absolutism
This shows the importance of palaces and absolutism. Also, it shows their centrality to the life and society of citizens.
This transformed contemporary thought on the arrangement of the universe and led to tensions between science and religion.
This sparked controversy and revealed the tensions between new and old thought at the time.
This society helped to spread and advance ideas of the Scientific Revolution.
This compiled many of his ideas, including universal gravitation, into one singular piece.
This provided inspiration for the Enlightenment. It also presented a counter to Cartesian Dualism.
The High Courts of France were given the right to evaluate decrees before they became law. This shows France's use of separation of powers, an important Enlightenment contribution to politics. Thus, it shows the Enlightenment's impact on politics.
This caused Catherine the Great to grant nobles absolute control over their serfs. This went against Enlightenment thought. Thus, some do not see Catherine as a true Enlightened Despot.
This shows the disdain for, and tiredness of, absolutist governments.
This was another test of Prussian military prowess. It ended with Frederick the Great re-evaluating his rule and becoming more committed to Enlightenment ideals.
This presented the idea of the General Will, which would later be used by Democrats and Nationalists to support their positions.
This comprised many ideas of the time into a single work. It's size shows how much knowledge had been gained during the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment.
This is an example of her using Enlightened ideals to govern. Thus, some call her an Enlightened Despot.
This shows the increase in the European market for books.
These show the British desire to increase military power and national wealth. Also, they are the beginnings of tensions between the colonies and Great Britain.
This marked the pit of the decline in Dutch economic prowess and also marked England's rise.
This shows the effect of the population explosion of the 18th century in Europe.
This shows one of the effects of the Agricultural Revolution.
This shows a commitment to rural industries (i.e. the Cottage Industry).
This would lead to Spain spreading their influence out west as far as California. This had a great impact on the development of the United States.
This marked Britain's rise to naval dominance and colonial and trading monopolization.
This was the first mass, peaceful political movement in British history, showing that change could be sought after without using violence.
Written by Adam Smith, this denounced contemporary mercantilism and set the foundation for modern economics.
This illustrates one of the many technological improvements made during this period.
This shows the growing interest in children and their well-being.
This shows the dire need for such institutions. In turn, it shows the large number of abandoned children.
This depicted his conversion which was necessary and important to the spread of Methodism, which he founded.
This shows once again an increased interest into affairs regarding children.
This advocated education for children, another example of the rising interest in caring for children.
This shows religious and political tensions of time.
This shows government opposition to child-neglect. This is another example of an increase in the care for children.
This demonstrated the increased value of social and health care.
This is an example of a medicinal and scientific achievement of the time.
This allowed for widespread distribution of his findings. It promoted further discoveries which helped shape the world of medicine and science.
This showed Europe how a representative government could function and that monarchies were not the only form of successful rule.
This began tensions between the colonies and the British.
This increased tensions between the colonies and the British.
This showed that the colonies were able to create an organized opposition to British rule.
This marked the start of a war that would forever alter the course of the world.
This increased public support for the war for independence.
This outlined the reasons for independence and stated the basic rights of humans.
France was forced to pay for the American Revolution with loans from other nations, beginning the accumulation of their insurmountable debt.
This was very important to the success of the colonies. It also led to the Spanish and the Dutch joining the colonial cause in 1779 and 1780, respectively.
This brought independence to the colonies. More importantly, it showed European countries, like France, that revolution was possible. If the indomitable Britain could be taken down, who couldn't?
This led to many social/political demands being made in France.
The Notables wanted the Estates General to meet to discuss tax reform. This would be there first meeting since 1614. Thus, odd behaviors in France were beginning: a revolution may be coming.
Meeting to discuss a constitution, the delegates sparked much debate over the structure of the new government. This was the first problem that the newly independent nation faced.
This shows Louis XVI's succumbing to popular demands; the monarchy is weakening.
This outlined the problems with, and solutions to, the class divisions in France. Very anti-nobility and pro-Third Estate?, this work increased revolutionary fervor among the lowest class.
This outlined basic human rights as well as increased public support for the revolution.
This shows that the revolutionaries were serious in their desire for change.
This is an example of classical liberalism in practice. Also, it showed how the new nation overcame one of it's first problems.
This was a big win for the revolutionaries.
Formed by Austria and Prussia, this was a big blow to the revolutionary France. It stated that Austria and Prussia would not hesitate to intervene if necessary.
This led to much fighting and violence in France and Europe.
This was an early piece of feminist literature. It also influenced and increased revolutionary fervor.
This was the symbolic death of the French monarchy, fueling further the revolutionary fire.
This reinforced fears that the revolution had only replaced a weak king with a violent dictatorship.
France's efforts during this fight are a great example of the principle of total war.
This failed revolt knocked the working class out of politics until around 1830.
This demonstrates the desire of many to return to a structured, normal state of affairs after such a disorienting revolution.
Napoleon's early foreign policy effort. This would lead to many wars and lots of territorial expansion.
Napoleon gave religious freedom to French Catholics in exchange for increased political power. This shows Napoleon's prowess in foreign affairs.
This granted equality for to all men before the law. It also assured the security of private property and wealth. The exclusion of women shows that sexism was still prevalent despite a revolution.
This shows the dominance of the other European powers; They were able to de-throne the all-mighty Napoleon.
This assured the end of napoleon's rule; He was now done for good.
These two advances in textile technology marked the beginning of a large growth of the textile industry.
This steam engine was more efficient than the ones made by Savery and Newcomen. It showed that inventions could be perform well practically and not just in a laboratory.
This decade witnessed the growth of many canals, providing better transport of raw materials essential to Britain's Industrial Revolution.
Weavers became some of the best-paid workers in England, attracting many rural workers to transfer over to factory life.
This is an example of contemporary fear of overpopulation. It proposed a traditional solution of marrying late and refraining from producing many kids.
These outlawed unions and strikes in England, showing the beginnings of labor v. capitalist tensions.
This was an early attempt at labor reform.
Attacking factories in northern England, these workers showed the tensions between labor and capitalists. Also, it displays the anger some felt toward new machines replacing them at work.
Many Brits escaped to this palace and shared industrial "secrets" to the men at this palace in Belgium. This illustrates one of the ways in which industrialization spread to other nations despite Britain's attempts at keeping it to themselves.
This began the rail road boom, which provided cheap, reliable overland shipping of freight to European nations.
This showed the immense success of the industrial Revolution in Britain and it's impact on the cotton textile industry in particular.
Limiting the workday of children, this act shows later attempts at labor reform as well as the growing realization of the dangerous/poor working conditions in mines and factories.
Founded by reformer Robert Owen, this union showed the desire to align labor into one large, powerful group to combat capitalists. However, it was not successful and led to formation of smaller unions.
This was another example of labor reform. It prohibited women and children under 10 from working in the mines. This is also an example of society placing women and children in the same category, which could possibly be seen as a cause of sexism.
This allowed for Britain to show the world their industrial accomplishments.
This shows the success of Britain's industrial revolution and their ascent to the top of the industrial world.
This congress achieved a lasting peace, and it also showed the balance of power principle in action.
Formed by Austria, Prussia, and Russia, this symbolized their fight against revolutionary and liberal movements.
These were issued to suppress revolutionary movements in Europe. They show the tensions between liberalists/revolutionaries and autocratic regimes.
This revolt ended with Greek independence. It showed that nationalist feelings could lead to a revolution and eventual independence: The Holy Alliance were not unstoppable.
This caused an increase in the number of voters in Britain. It also gave power to the House of Commons and gave a voice to many residents of new industrial areas. This showed that political power could be shifted and thus urged groups (House of Lords) to not be too power-hungry.
Blanc argued that workers should demand universal male suffrage. This shows one of the major revolutionary ideas of the time as well as the labor tensions of the period.
The election of Louis Napoleon marked the start of a somewhat authoritative government. However, this shows the desire of upper level French citizens to attain order and structure.
Headed by a ten-man executive committee, this provisional republic of France demonstrated the unrest that the populous felt toward the age-old monarchy.
Written by Karl Marx and Friedreich Engels, this work became the bible for socialists. It was used to justify many revolutionary movements during this, and many other, periods.
Prussia was forced by Russia and Austria to renounce its plans to unite the German states. This shows that revolutions were not as plausible in the German states.