Small Pox


The Small pox vaccine was the first vaccine created. The process was created Edward Jenner in 1796. His process involved introducing cowpox to humans, which in turn provided immunity from smallpox. By 1980, the World Health Assembly declared Small Pox eradicated.



The vaccine for Cholera was developed by Louis Pasteur in 1884, however, Pasteur developed the vaccine for chickens. A human vaccine was developed by Waldemar Haffkine in the late nineteenth century. There are currently two effective oral vaccines for Cholera, Dukoral and Shanchol. Cholera is still a common disease in regions where conditions are unsanitary; fortunately the disease is easily treatable.



After rabies was becoming a problem in France, Louis Pasteur and Emile Roux developed a vaccine in 1885. The disease fatal is left untreated, but treatment after expose is extremely successful. Rabies is prevalent is Asia and Africa and current vaccinations on the market are HDCV and PCECV. Both vaccines are effective for pre or post exposure.

Typhoid Fever


Almorth Edward Wright created the first successful vaccine for Typhoid Fever in 1897. Wright demonstrated that immunity occurred after inoculation of a killed typhoid bacteria. The fever was common during warfare, thus immunizations for the American Military started in 1911 after another vaccine was created by Frederick F. Russell. Vaccinations are not commonly needed for Americans, but are encouraged for international travelers. There are currently two popular vaccines in circulation, Vivotif Berna and TYPHIM Vi. Vivotif Berna is a live, attenuated oral vaccine while TYPHIM Vi is a capsular polysaccharide vaccine.



An early antitoxin was developed by Shibasaburo Kitsato and Emil von Behring in 1890, but it was William H. Park in 1914 who adjusted the antitoxin to achieve immunity in humans. A DTP vaccine was developed in the mid-1940’s which combined vaccines for diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. The DTP vaccine was used widely in America, until 1991 when the FDA approved DTaP. DTap had fewer side effects and was considered a safer vaccine. In 2009, the CDC recorded no cases of diphtheria in five years and considered the disease to be near eliminated from the United States.



Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin discovered the first vaccine for the prevention for tuberculosis in humans in 1921. As of 2011, bacillus Calmette-Guerin became the only effective vaccine preventing tuberculosis in the childhood. Its significance for prevention in children makes it the most widely used vaccine in the world. It is not common in the United States because it causes a false positive skin test.

Scarlet Fever


a. George and Gladys Dick introduced the first vaccine for scarlet fever in 1924. It has been discontinued due to poor efficacy and the fact that antibiotics can control the infection. Scarlet fever was a major cause of death in the past prior to antibiotic availability. It was found that Penicillin successfully treated the disease in the 1940s, thus the vaccine is no longer administered.

Yellow Fever


In 1936, Max Theiler used tissue cultures from embryonic chicken eggs to develop the Yellow Fever Vaccine. The vaccination is a live, attenuated form of the virus. The vaccine used today is named 17D from the strain that was used in the lab. Yellow Fever is common in South America and sub-Saharan Africa, which is why the World Health Organization requires any American traveling to the region to be vaccinated. Vaccination is highly encouraged by the World Health Organization in at risk regions, where and outbreak can result in fatalities higher than 50%.



Jules Bordet Octave Gengou successfully isolated the pathogen Bordetella pertussis in 1906; the isolated bacteria would be used later by scientist to develop a vaccine. A breakthrough in research during the mid-1940’s was the development of the DTP vaccine by American Scientist Pearl Kendrick, which provided immunity against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. A safer vaccine called DTaP with few side effects was approved in 1991 by the FDA. DTap and Tdap are the current vaccinations used for Pertussis.



The first Polio vaccine was developed by Jonas Salk in 1952 after cases were surging across the United States. In 1954, over 1.3 million people were involved in a double blind test to gather results on the new vaccine. The International Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication in the Americas examined data to determine if Polio has been eradicated. In 1994, the disease was declared eradicated in the Americas. Efforts for world-wide eradication are still in progress, as certain areas such as Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan are still reporting cases of Polio.



The Measles vaccine was licensed in 1963 after its safety was demonstrated by John Enders and his staff. In 1968, Maurice Hilleman began to develop an improved version of the vaccine based on the stain used by John Enders. In 1971, the government licensed the newly MMR vaccine developed by Hilleman. The Journal of the American Medical Association reports that the vaccine greatly induces immunity to measles, rubella, and mumps in children. Proquad is the current MMRV distributed in the United States.



Parkman and Weller first isolated rubella virus in 1962, and the first vaccine was licensed for rubella was in 1969. The Rubella vaccine is a live, disabled virus vaccine. It was originally given by itself, but now is given as part of a MMR vaccine, which includes protection against measles, mumps, and rubella. There was a rubella outbreak in the US in 1963, which caused 12 million people to develop the disease, but the number of cases have had a sharp decline since the first vaccine was licensed.

Chicken Pox


a. Developed by a Japanese scientist named Michiaki Takahashi in 1974, the chicken pox vaccine is also known as the varicella vaccine. The vaccine is made from a live but weakened, or attenuated, virus. The vaccine became available in the United States in 1995. In the United States, the varicella vaccine is branded as Varivax. The vaccine is given as a shot and two doses are recommended given at separate times. The time between the two doses depends on the age of the person getting the vaccine. The vaccine is targeted for children that are under 13 years of age or anyone that has not been diagnosed with chickenpox. If a person has already had chickenpox, there is no need to get the vaccine. Chickenpox is very contagious and that is why most states require that children have their varicella vaccine before they allow them to attend school.

Hepatitis A


The vaccine was introduced in 1992, but Maurice Hileman developed the first successful vaccine against Hepatitis A. The types of vaccinations currently available for the disease are an attenuated and inactivated form. Common commercial vaccines found today are Avaxim, Epaxal, Havrix, and Vaqta. People who need to be vaccinated are young children, those who are sexually active, and anyone with chronic liver disease to name a few. Also the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention state that people who travel to East Asia, Africa, South America, or Eastern Europe should be vaccinated, as the disease is common amongst travelers.

Human Papillomavirus


The researchers Ian Frazer and Jian Zhou from the University of Queensland first invented the Virus-like Proteins for the vaccination. Although they had findings from the 1980s, the first preventive HPV vaccine, Gardasil, was not approved until 2006. Gardasil and Cervarix are effective vaccine to prevent HPV types 16 and 18. These strains are the most prevalent in approximately 70% cervical cancer biopsies. The vaccine consists of three injection doses over a span of six months, and can be effective in both males and females.