Nursing Theories and Models

Main

Florence Nightingale

1859

manipulation of physical and social factors
environmental model

Peplau

1952

Patient became partner with nurse

Henderson

1956

Defined nursing
Helped identify boundaries of nursing domain

Abdellah

1960

There's a unique body of nursing knowledge
21 skills, 11 probe
Pt centered approached to curricula

Orlando

1961

Nursing process
linked effective care to nurses knowledge of pt needs
reflexive and circular
nursing unique and independent
interactive discipline process

Johnson

1968

behavioral systems model
response to stress of illness
goal - balance and stability
differentiated undergrad from graduate curricula
systematic assess, plan for prioritization

Levine

1969

conservation
provide graduate curricula in med-surg nursing
balancing resource expenditures

Theory Explosion (1970s)

Rogers

1970

person and environment = 1 unit; evolve, change, and move ahead together
based on scientific knowledge
declared nursing science and discipline as unique body of knowledge

Roy

1970

Adaptation model
individual = system
role of nursing - change environment so patient can respond to stimuli
organizing framework for undergrad nursing

Orem

1971

Self-care

King

1971

Goal Attainment system theory
questions regarding nursing decision making

Neuman

1974

Systems Model
response of client to environmental stressors
open system
whole with interaction of parts

Watson

1979

Caring
p. 162 Johnson & Weber book

Newman

1979

Health as Expanding Consciousness

Care and Caring (1980s)

Parse

1981

Human becoming
Health = process
primarily at graduate level until recently
Best with qualitative research

Benner

1984

Skill Acquisition

Leninger

1985

Cultural Diversity

1990s & 2000s

Less new theories
More revised and updated theories