White male property owners over age 21 are allowed to vote (approximately 6% of the population).
1861 - 1865
11 states secede from the United States of America
1863 - 1877
Federal Troops removed from Southern States
1877 - 1965
A voter suppression method designed to keep black people from voting where registrants are charged a fee to vote.
1895 - 1965
A Voter suppression method where state voter registration officials at their own discretion administer civics questions to applicants.
1896 - 1965
A voter suppression method enacted by Southern states exempted voters from literacy tests and poll taxes if their Grandfather was a citizen eligible to vote before the civil war.
By executive order President Truman abolishes discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion or national origin, in the US armed forces. In World War II, the majority of black enlistees were porters, cooks, drivers, etc.
Federal Troops enforce integration Little Rock AK
Federal Troops enforce integration in Alabama
Voter registration activists murdered in Mississippi
Neshoba County Missippi
Selma Alabama Civil Rights March
Barack Obama elected president.
B. US CONGRESS
Constitution elevates Federal laws above state laws
Constitution declares that all matters NOT specifically ceded to the Federal Government are under the jurisdiction of state governments.
Slavery is abolished.
Equal protection clause grants full citizenship rights to all including former slaves.
States are prohibited from restricting citizens from voting based on race or previous commitment as a slave.
Prohibits states from denying the right to vote on the basis of sex.
The elimination of poll taxes and literacy tests is ratified into law.
Voting Rights Act
Pre-clearance provisions require certain states to submit any proposed changes in voting regulations to the United States justice department to prevent measures that would obstruct or impede voting among minority communities.
Section 5 4b reauthorized
1965 - 2013
With unusual bipartisan support Congress reauthorizes pre-clearance provisions of the voting rights act as recently as 2006
Minimum voting age is lowered to 18. This was the final expansion of voting rights.
C. THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES
Mcculloch v. Maryland
Federalist victory over states rights prohibits State of Maryland from taxing the 2nd bank of the United States.
US vs Cruikshank
Acquitting Klansmen for murdering close to 100 blacks in a terror campaign of voter suppression.
Plessy v Ferguson
Creates the doctrine of "Separate but equal"paving the way for segregation of the races.
Brown vs The Board of Education
Prohibits segregation in public schools.
Heart of Atlanta Motel vs. US
Segregation in public accommodations is ruled unconstitutional.
Shelby County v Holder
Pre-clearance provisions of the voting rights act of 1965 are struck down. All 50 states are no longer required to submit proposed changes in voting laws to the justice department.
The sad irony of today’s decision lies in its utter failure to grasp why the [Voting Rights Act] has proven effective ... Throwing out preclearance when it has worked and is continuing to work to stop discriminatory changes is like throwing away your umbrella in a rainstorm because you are not getting wet."