Post WWI

p 840 - 848



Battle of Gallipoli

February 1915 - January 1916
  • British vs Turks
  • Turkey won despite having staggering losses and having just formed the army

End of WWI

November 11 1918

Spartacist Uprising

January 1919
  • radical communist + Karl Liebknecht + Rosa Luxemburg + supports tried to seize control of the government

Greek armies land on the Turkish coast at Smyrna on British ships


Kapp Putsch

March 1920
  • nationwide strikes by leftist workers and a short-lived military takeover
  • Berlin

French armies attack Syria, British control Iraq

July 1920
  • army stationed at Lebanon
  • took Damascus
  • Arabs fled and french took over
  • meanwhile, British put down an uprising in Iraq with bloody fighting and established effective control


Skyes-Picot Agreement of 1916

  • secret British and French agreement to split the Arab middle east
  • France would get Lebanon, Syria, and southern Turkey
  • Arab nationalists reacted with surprise and resentment
  • Britain would get Palestine, Transjordan and Iraq

Balfour Declaration

November 1917
  • A British statement that declared British support of a National Home for the Jewish People in Palestine
  • foreign secretary Arthur Balfour
  • British- would gain support of German, Austrian, and American Jews, and help Britain maintain control of the Suez Canal
  • Zionists happy
  • Arabs angry

U.S. President Woodrow Wilson expresses treaty ideas

January 1918
  • Fourteen Points- Wilson's 1918 peace proposal calling for open diplomacy, a reduction in armaments, freedom of commerce and trade, the establishment of the League of Nations and national self-determination
  • League of Nations- a permanent international organization, established during the 1919 Paris peace conference, designed to protect member states from aggression and avert future wars
  • national self-determination - the notion that people should be able to live free from outside interference in nations with clearly defined borders, and should be able to choose their own national governments through democratic majority rule elections

General Syrian Congress meets in Damascus

  • Arab nationalists
  • proclaimed Syria an independent kingdom
  • similar congress declared Iraqi independence

70+ delegates meet to discuss treaty terms at Versailles

January 1919

Weimer Republic established

  • Social Democratic Party
  • democratic government

Hungary becomes an independent Soviet republic


Treaty of Versailles is signed by Germany

June 28, 1919
  • Representatives from ruling moderate Social Democrats and Catholic party
  • Hall of Mirrors (Bismarck signed to create Germany)
  • Germany had to limit army and no Rhineland control
  • war guild clause Article 231
  • give up all colonies
  • forced really to sign

Treaty of Lausanne

  • declared a truly independent Turkey and solemnly abolished the hated Capitulations that the European powers had imposed over the centuries to give their citizens special privileges in the Ottoman Empire