The Russian Revolution

p. 833- 838 Mckay



Russia enters WWI

August 1914

Violent street demonstrations at Petrograd

March 1917
  • aka St. Petersburg
  • food shortages, heating fuel on short supply, economy broken down
  • factories --> city
  • tsar ordered the army to open fire on protesters but refused to shoot and instead joined the revolutionary crowd

February Revolution

March 1917
  • unplanned uprisings accompanied by violent street demonstrations begun in March 1917 ( old calender February) in Petrograd, Russia, that led to the abdication of the tsar and the establishment of a provisional government

Provisonal government order summer offensive againest the Germans

July 1917
  • failure
  • "voting with their feet"
  • deserted armies

Russian Civil War

November 7,1917 - October 1922
  • White army- old army who rejected the peace treaty, anti-Bolsheviks
  • Reds- Bolsheviks
  • Bolsheviks had developed a better army
  • Trotsky's leadership decisive
  • all drafted, no exceptions
  • Reds controlled central Russia, Moscow and Petrograd
  • Whites attacked from the fringes and lacked coordination
  • war communism- the application of centralized state control during the Russian civil war, in which the Bolsheviks seized grain from peasants, introduced rationing, nationalized all banks and industry, and required everyone to work

Red Terror

1918 - 1920
  • establishment of the sevret police ( Cheka ) as a central tool of the new communist government

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

March 1918
  • peace treaty signed between the Central Powers and Russia that ceded Russian territories containing a third of the Russian empire's population to the Central Powers


Tsar Nicholas II rule

1894 - 1917

Formation of the Progressive bloc

September 1915
  • Duma (educated middle classes and mass) critical of tsar's leadership
  • new gov. responsible to the Duma instead of the tsar
  • in response Nicholas II leaves for front (Tsarina Alexandra, Alexis and Rasputin)

Rasputin Murdered by High Aristocracy

December 1916
  • fearful of influence over the royal family

Petrograd Soviet formed

March 12 1917
  • a huge fluctuating mass meeting of two to three thousand workers, soldiers, and socialist intellectuals modeled on the revolutionary soviets of 1905
  • parallel government
  • issued own radical orders which weakened the authority of the provisional government

Duma declares a provisional government

March 12, 1917

Tsar Nicholas II abdicates

March 15, 1917

Army Order No. 1 Edict

May 1917
  • Petrograd Soviet
  • stripped officers of their authority and placed power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers
  • designed to protect the revolution from resistance by the aristocratic officer corps
  • led to a collapse of army discipline

Alexander Kerensky becomes Prime Minister

July 1917
  • refused to confiscate large land and give to peasants --> fear of disintegration of Russia's peasant army
  • continued with war = national duty


Brother Alexander is executed for plotting to kill the tsar


Russian Social Democratic Labor Party splits into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks


Lenin returns from exile

April 1917
  • Switzerland
  • to avoid persecution by the tsar's police

Trotsky's committee + Bolsheviks take over the Provisonal Government

November 6 1917
  • Leon Trotsky- revolutionary orator, radical Marxists
  • size government buildings and members
  • soviets have power
  • Lenin head of the new government

Constituent Assembly meets

January 18, 1918
  • "Provisional workers' and peasants' government"
  • backlash--> Social Revolutionary Party (peasants party) had majority
  • disbanded by Lenin --> 1 party state