French Revolution

Main

First Coalition War

1792 - 1797

France against Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Spain. It ends with treaties signed in Campo Formio.

Day 1

September 22 1792

This is the first day on the French Revolutionary Calender

Trial

December 1792

This is when Louis XVI was put to trial

Royal Execution

January 1 1793

Louis XVI is stripped of his title and put to death.

Committee of Public Safety

April 1793

The Committee of Public Safety is formed, which starts as a way to identify and remove Royalists, but quickly turns into a way for the members to kill off those they don't like (up to 40,000 WERE killed).

Marat's Death

July 13 1793

Charlotte Corday held Marat responsible for all the violence in France, so she went into Marat's house while he was in his medicinal bath and stabbed him. He became a martyr and worshipped as a saint.

War Troubles

September 1793

France suffers great losses in the war against Austria.

Au Revoir Marie

October 1793

She was isolated in prison and then beheaded.

Festival of the Supreme Being

June 6 1794

New holiday called "Festival of the Supreme Being". It's a new holiday to worship the goddess of wheat and there were no executions that day.

The Great Terror

July 1794

About 800 people killed a month.

Ropes-Pierre's Execution

October 1794

Ropes-Pierre tries to make a list of people to kill like Marat but is arrested. He's held in a palace with two friends, both who kill themselves before being executed. He tries to kill himself but instead just breaks his jaw. He's taken into a room where his old colleagues mock him and then is executed.

Napoleon Fighting Italians

1795 - June 1798

The directory's worried because Napoleon's more popular than them, so they send him to Italy to fight.

Peace

April 1795

There's peace with Prussia & Spain (basically a win for France).

1795 Constitution

August 1795

Ratified by the people, the document sets up a bicameral government structure with the two councils (Council of 500, Council of the Elders). The Council of 500 is like the House of Representatives, 500 members, more radical. The Council of Elders have more political experience, more conservative, 250 members. The two councils elect a directory of 5 people from their own to make up the executive branch.

Royalist Uprising

October 1795

There's a royalist uprising in Paris and the two councils hide in the toulerries. Napoleon helps the councils fight them off with "shotgun" cannons.

War of the Second Coalition

1798 - March 1802

France versus Russia, Austria, and Great Britain

Sail to the Egyptians

June 20 1798

Napoleon takes his troops to fight in Egypt. He leaves his ships unguarded at the mouth of the Nile while they fight and British troops (led by Horatio Nelson) blow them all up.

Sneaky Napoelon

September 1798

Napoleon sneaks back to France after being stranded in Egypt with his troops (and all 20,000 are quickly killed without him there).

Tricky Napoleon

October 1798

Napoleon tricks the councils into being surrounded by his troops, saying there's an uprising and they'll be protected. He goes in and insults the two councils. The Council of 500 beat him up and he gets pity when he goes back outside to face his troops, so he takes power with his military. He forms a triumvirate with two directory members he allied with.

Coup of Brumaire

November 9 1799

Napoleon seizes power from the directory and makes himself first Consul (basically dictator powers).

Napoleon's Reign

1802

There's peace, he restructures the education system, and a new Constitution (voted on by the people) is passed so that Napoleon is leader for life.

Third Coalition War

1803 - 1806

During the war, Horatio Nelson, who blew up the ships at the Nile, is killed in the Battle of Trafalgar. In Britain he's a big war hero and his body's preserved in brandy.

Napoleonic Code

1804

New Civil Code (Napoleonic code): very VERY detailed, main value is that you're French.

Napoleon's Emperor

September 1804

He crowns himself

Fourth Coalition War

March 1806

France versus Prussia/Russia/Great Britain

Confederation of the Rhine

March 1806

The Confederation of the Rhine is formed in France so that they have client states (technically independent but under French power).

Peninsular Campaign

1807 - 1814

Napoleon helps his brother (emperor of Spain) with fighting. Diversion of French troops.

Treaty of Tilsit

1807

Russia surrenders and signs treaty, saying they'll join the continental system so they won't trade with England.

Russia Breaches Treaty

1812

Russia trades with England, so Napoleon invades with 480,000 troops. Russia uses "scorched earth" strategy so they let the French get close, then retreat so that they have to keep coming. Russians also burn everything they pass so that the French have no resources.

Moscow Burns

September 1812

The Russians burn Moscow to hurt the French and set their prisoners free as an obstacle for the armies.

Sixth Coalition War

1814

France versus Russia/Prussia/Austria/G. Britain

Napoleon Exiled

May 1814

Napoleon's exiled to the Isle of Elba. Russia, Prussia, Austria, G.B. make a Bourbon monarchy in France, instate Louis XVIII.

Napoleon Comes Back

March 1815

N. steals a boat, paddles to South France, Louis XVIII sends an army to kill him, but N convinces them to fight for him. With this army he takes France back. During/after this, the Congress at Vienna is whining about Napoleon and his power.

Battle of Waterloo

September 1815

Napoleon goes to Belgium to fight Britain in the mud and is defeated. Loses and is exiled to Saint Helena Island.

Napoleon's Death

1821

Napoleon dies from either arsenic poisoning over a long period of time or cancer in his stomach or liver.