Civil War


Bread Riot

April 2, 1863


Davis supports Congressional resolution

April 10, 1863

Devote fields for growing food for soldiers

General Order 38

April 13, 1863

Issued by Burnside while he commanded the Department of the Ohio; said anyone making treasonous statements was subject to arrest, military trial, and death or banishment (pg 596)

Vallandigham arrested

May 5, 1863

Longstreet meets with Seddon

May 6, 1863

On his way to meet Lee at Rappahannock; says he and Johnston should reinforce Bragg in Tennessee and drive Rosecrans back to the Ohio - this would make Grant stop his campaign and help Rosecrans
Seddon liked idea but said instead he should first go to the Mississippi to help Johnston and Pemberton stop Grant and then go to TN (Davis preferred this plan)
Lee didn't like idea - it would take too long to get to Mississippi, and he thought the troops were more needed in Virginia

Jackson dies

May 10, 1863

Lee has strategy conference with Davis

May 15, 1863

Davis concerned about what's going on on the Mississippi. Lee proposes going into Pennsylvania to remove enemy threat from the Rappahannock, take armies out of VA, get food for Lee's troops, further divide the North, reopen question of foreign recognition
Postmaster general John Reagan was the only one in Davis's cabinet who didn't like the idea; he wanted to keep focus on Mississippi because he didn't want to divide the south (he was the only cabinet member from west of the Mississippi)

Draft Riots

July 13, 1863 - July 16, 1863

Greatest riot in American history until Rodney King; rioters mainly Irish - attacked draft office and black communities because saw free blacks as threat to their jobs
Union troops had been called to Pennsylvania for Gettysburg, so at first only local militia and soldiers in military hospital were there to help; soldiers returned on the 16th and squashed the riot
105 dead: 11 blacks, 8 soldiers, 2 policemen, rest were rioters

Gubernatorial races in Ohio and Pennsylvania were going on, and copperheads Vallandigham (Ohio) and Woodward (Pennsylvania) were running; a lot of the rhetoric was racist and anti-abolition, but the draft riots made northern opinion more sympathetic, so they didn't elect either.

Quantrill raids Lawrence

August 21, 1863

Quantrill and 300 men raided Lawrence, Kansas after a building holding suspect women collapsed; out of 3,000 citizens in Lawrence, about 5% (150-182) were killed - largest single civilian death toll in the war
In response, Union General Thomas Ewing (who had rounded up the women in the first place) ordered three counties in western MO evacuated in order to catch Quantrill, but Q eluded him

Adams threatens war over B shipbuilding

September 5, 1863

John Laird (British) was building ships for the CSA; September 6, GB seized the ships and put them into the navy (B gvt. had made that decision a few days earlier); dashed CSA hopes that GB will help them

Gettysburg Address

November 19, 1863

Edward Everett had spoken at the ceremony before Lincoln for over two hours; Lincoln's speech was two minutes
Lincoln didn't talk about slavery, geographical divisions, where battles have been, other causes of the war; he re-emphasized the danger of ending popular government
Valedictory tone, as if the war is almost won

Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction

December 8, 1863

Offers pardon to all CSA soldiers/citizens who'd take an oath of allegiance to the US; trying to put wedge b/w die-hard rebels and lukewarm/disaffected southerners; aura of confidence (US thinks they're in position to offer pardon); this confidence will last until May

Grant in DC

March 8, 1864

Grant has come to take over the Army of the Potomac; because Mead is still technically commander because of his popularity from Gettysburg, Grant is made general-in-chief and Halleck is made chief of staff

Joe Davis dies

April 30, 1864

Jefferson Davis's 5 yo son was playing on the balcony at the white house, fell, and died

Frémont Nominated by Radical Democracy

May 31, 1864

Trying to get the Republican party to nominate him; otherwise, the party may split

Wade-Davis Bill

July 2, 1864

Wade radical senator from Michigan and Davis radical representative from Maryland; wanted to get radicals in control of Reconstruction; it should be more punitive, longer, harsher than what Lincoln has in mind
Passed by Congress but Lincoln vetoed it (pocket veto)

Lincoln calls for more troops

July 18, 1864

Demoralizing; 500,000 or he'd issue a draft in a few months

Lincoln cabinet letter

August 23, 1864

Lincoln tells cabinet a Democrat will be elected and that he'll have to try and win the war before inauguration

Roger Taney dies

October 12, 1864

Was chief justice of the supreme court; replaced by Salmon P. Chase

St. Albans Raid

October 19, 1864

CSA secret service came to Vermont from Canada posing as hunters; they robbed banks in town and fled back over the border; money didn't make it to CSA treasury

13th Amendment


119 to 56; Lincoln signed the next day, and it was ratified 12/6/65; DE, NJ, and KY didn't ratify the first time around

Hampton Roads Conference


Failed peace talk; Lincoln and Seward with CSA peace commissioners, including Alexander Stephens

Lee supports arming blacks

February 18, 1865

Lincoln sworn in

March 4, 1865

CSA legalizes black enlistment

March 13, 1865

Passed by 1 vote

Lincoln in City Point

March 24, 1865 - April 3, 1865

He travels there because he wants to see the end of the war; March 25 and 26, his wife freaks about other women riding next to him during review; she goes home shortly after; he leaves April 3 to see Richmond, since it's been captured

Seward injured

April 5, 1865

Carriage ride

Lincoln sees Seward

April 8, 1865

took priority over seeing Lee surrender

John Wilkes Booth hears speech

April 11, 1865

About reconstruction and giving some blacks the right to vote

Western Theater

Yankees attack gala ball in Vicksburg

April 16, 1863

Ball celebrating Vicksburg victory for CSA

Grierson's Raid

April 17, 1863 - May 2, 1863

Benjamin Grierson, former music teacher, and his cavalry tear up Pemberton's supply lines and distract CSA from Union army going down west bank of MS; caused 100 CSA casualties and captured 500

Grant crosses Mississippi

April 30, 1863

Port Gibson

May 1, 1863

23,000 Union soldiers easily beat 6,000 infantry in Port Gibson, Mississippi
Not very important

Jackson is attacked

May 14, 1863

Johnston is there and asks for reinforcements from Pemberton, who is at Vicksburg; P doesn't want to and ends up being unable to anyway because he's defeated at Champion's Hill

Battle of Champion Hill

May 16, 1863 - May 18, 1863

29,000 Yankees (McPherson and McClernand) vs 20,000 CSA (Pemberton); Union: 2400 casualties; CSA: 3800; main body of CSA falls back to Big Black River and are attacked the 17th; 1750 CSA casualties and 200 Union; Pemberton retreats to Vicksburg

Siege of Vicksburg

May 18, 1863 - July 4, 1863

May 19, Union army fires on Vicksburg but rebels fire back; same thing 22nd; later, Yankees dig trenches; Grant asks for reinforcements, bringing number to 70,000; July 3, Pemberton asks for terms of surrender; July 4, American flag over courthouse; led to fall of Port Hudson to the Union (Nathaniel Banks)

Fort Wagner

July 18, 1863

South Carolina, so not totally sure what theater that is; 54th Massachusetts, African American regiment, participated in assault on Fort Wagner; assault failed but these men fought very bravely, so having black men serve in the army became less controversial in the North; among the dead was an uncle of a man killed in the draft riots; Colonel Shaw killed, too

Northerners sympathetic toward the black people; like draft riots, made Ohio and Pennsylvania racist gubernatorial campaigns less palatable

Knox. taken

September 3, 1863

Battle of Chickamauga

September 19, 1863 - September 20, 1863

Bragg vs Rosecrans
Bragg was there because he wanted to defend Chattanooga, a major railroad hub, but Chattanooga was a hole so he decided to defend from the surrounding hills near Chickamauga Creek.
Bragg attacked Rosecrans
Longstreet brought fresh troops for CSA by rail; L found himself in Union lines but pretended to be a Yankee and got away
First and only major CSA victory in W theater (had won Wilson's Creek)
Last major CSA offensive anywhere in the war
Bragg won but criticized for letting the Yankees get away to Chattanooga
George Thomas stood like a rock when most Union men fled after CSA broke through their lines
Rosecrans was pulled from his position and moved to command MO (he's now out of our story)
This is another battle called the Bull Run of the west (fresh troops brought in changed the tide of the war; Yankees fled in panic and weren't followed by CSA who was later criticized for this; Thomas got a nickname from this battle like Jackson got his from Bull Run)

Grant brings in supplies

October, 1863 - November 23, 1863

In Chattanooga, through a back road because Bragg is on the outside hills with artillery and has easy access to water routes under the hills
20,000 men from Meade's army were sent; they traveled in 12 days, the fastest movement of so many men ever until the 20th century
Hooker came to TN and Burnside, who'd been in Ohio, brought troops down, too
Grant in charge of new army created from the Armies of the Potomac, Mississippi, and Tennessee
Before, Grant had suffered partial paralysis from falling off his horse in New Orleans
Grant arrived October 23; within a week, they'd opened up a supply route to troops in Chattanooga; Rosecrans had been planning this, but Grant ordered it done (676)
During this time, Davis came to meet with Bragg and subordinates - all four corps commanders said Bragg had to go; Davis considered replacing him with Longstreet, but Longstreet decline; Davis hated Johnston so didn't want him to come in, so he decided Bragg should stay, but he moved some of the generals to another area

Thomas commands Cumberland

October 19, 1863

Replaces Rosecrans


November 24, 1863 - November 25, 1863

Bragg on surrounding hills; Union forces attacked him from the sides; George Thomas attacked in the middle in what was originally supposed to be a feint; Bragg and co. fled 25 miles to Georgia; TN is cleared of rebel armies; guarantees Georgia will be center of next activity; Bragg resigns because he thinks officers' dislike of him caused low morale, but he is made general-in-chief by Davis and replace (grudgingly on Davis's part) by Johnston

Fort Pillow

April 12, 1864

Part of Nathan Forrest's rampage through western TN; this was his most famous stop
Fort Pillow was on the Mississippi and would be of no importance if it weren't for what happened; 557 Union troops, 262 of whom were black; the white Union men were from TN, so rebels viewed them as turncoats
Forrest's cavalry (1500 men) surrounded the fort and demanded surrender; when commander refused, they took it within minutes; commander then surrendered but was shot "trying to escape"
Prevailing account is that cavalry killed 231 men, 200 of which were black (only 62 of the black men survived)
US government treated it like a massacre and there was pressure on Lincoln to retaliate using POW, but Lincoln said blood wouldn't solve the issue of blood and the only way to stop this was to win the war

Atlanta Campaign

May 7, 1864 - September 2, 1864

Sherman vs Johnston and then Hood
Between Chattanooga and Atlanta
Lasts longer than Grant's campaign and is 50% longer distance, but there are fewer casualties
Sherman tries to get between Johnston and Atlanta; Johnston wants to keep going but Davis orders him to fight; he attacks once and there's a stalemate, so Davis replaces him with John Bell Hood, who'd lost an arm at Gettysburg and a leg at Chickamauga
Hood won't abandon Atlanta, so there's a siege

Hood in charge of Army of Tennessee


Has 50,000 soldiers

Union gets control of Mobile

August 23, 1864

David Farragut blasted onto Mobile Bay and fired on fort
Mobile had been the last port open to the CSA

Sherman cuts off RR

September 1, 1864

Linked Hood to the deeper south; that night Hood evacuates

Yankees take Atlanta

September 2, 1864

Now seems like Lincoln has won the election; North wild with excitement

Hood loses Atlanta

September 2, 1864

He now has 30k soldiers; he decides to swing around Sherman and attack his lines of communication and supplies; in October, he moves toward Chattanooga, messing up railroads; he wants to pull Sherman from Atlanta and recapture Nashville

Price's Raid

September 19, 1864 - October 28, 1864

Left from Camden, Arkansas at the end of August; had 12,000 troops; he wanted to capture Jefferson City and St. Louis; guerrillas joined him but didn't really help, just perpetuated atrocities; dozens of battles with a lot of property damage; defeated by federal forces and returned with 6,000; cleared Missouri of guerrillas

Sherman's March to the Sea

November 15, 1864 - December 21, 1864

Burned railroads/Atlanta after civilians had evacuated; November 15, marched through Atlanta unopposed; during his march, joined by 1000s of slaves; destroyed farms, property (note that unlike southerners didn't commit atrocities toward others - for CSA, done against blacks); moved about 12 miles a day

Spring Hill


Schofield was trying to beat Hood to Nashville; this was Hood's last opportunity to beat him, but he didn't succeed and the federal army marched right in front of his (not shot at) and retreated; this was confusing to the CSA but since Union technically retreated Hood considered it a victory

Battle of Franklin


Schofield and army entrenched while engineers repairing bridge; called Pickett's Charge of the west: Hood ordered frontal charge on well-entrenched Union forces; 7,000 CSA casualties (3x that of the Union) including 12 generals (6 killed, including Cleburne) and 54 commanders (about half)

Battle of Nashville

12/15/1864 - 12/16/1864

George Thomas attacked Hood; CSA managed to escape but suffered more casualties; Hood's army was basically destroyed, and many soldiers walked away after this
Hood resigned a month later

Savannah captured

December 21, 1864

Last day of Sherman's March to Sea campaign

Fort Fisher captured


Wilmington, NC; gateway to last port usable by Lee; during Sherman's Carolinas Campaign
Had tried earlier under Butler, but he messed up so Grant had to opportunity to fire him; replaced by Alfred Terry
Very difficult for CSA - Stephens: "one of the greatest disasters that had befallen our cause from the beginning of the war"
CSA Congress attacked administration; Secretary of War Seddon stepped down, position of general in chief created for Lee (some Congressmen wanted Davis to step down and to make Lee dictator)

Sherman enters SC


Even more destructive here than in Georgia

Columbia burns

2/17/1865 - 2/18/1865

Due to Union and CSA-set fires and a windstorm

Johnston in command of area

February 23, 1865

Carolina area

Eastern Theater

Lee along Rappahannock near Fredericksburg

April, 1863 - May, 1863

25 miles of trenches; spread out looking for food

Longstreet is in SE VA

April, 1863 - May, 1863

Gathering supplies to send to Lee and watching federal troops around Norfolk and NC coast

Hooker divides his men

April 25, 1863 - April 30, 1863

10,000 horsemen go south to break up Lee's supply lines; 40,000 feigned advance on Fredericksburg; 70,000 marched upriver (Rappahannock)


April 30, 1863 - May 6, 1863

CSA casualties: 13,000 or 22%
Union casualties: 17,000 or 15%
"bred an overconfidence [in the South]...that led to disaster" (645)
Lincoln was very unhappy; copperheads saw it as proof that war should end; Republican Charles Sumner cried, "Lost! Lost! All is lost!"

Hooker crosses river, near Chancellorsville

April 30, 1863

Hooker retreats

May 1, 1863

Soldiers object but obey

Lee marches men to Chancellorsville

May 1, 1863

Leaves 10,000 at Fredericksburg

Jackson takes 30,000 around to Hooker's other side

May 2, 1863

Hooker's subordinate Daniel Sickles (Democrat who'd shot his wife's lover and got off w/ 1st successful temporary insanity plea) told him about Jackson's movement, but Hooker thought J and the rest of Lee's forces were retreating; Union commander Howard not ready; Jackson shot by friendly fire, 2 bullets in arm

"Uncle" John Sedgwick pushes through Jubal Early's line

May 3, 1863

In the heights in the rear of Lee's army; took 3 tries; takes 1,000 prisoners

Lee and Stuart at Hazel Grove attack Hooker and co.

May 3, 1863

Near Chancellorsville. Sickles had held that area earlier but Hooker had ordered him to fall back at dawn even though land was on high ground and it was one of few places in wilderness CSA could unite and attack. Hooker is knocked out by cannons but awakens in time to order a withdrawal a mile or two north for a defensive line; rebels cheer as Lee rides around burning Chancellor mansion; Lee can send some troops to help fight Sedgwick

Sedgwick repulses attack by rebels

May 4, 1863

Lee had taken a lot of troops to his rear to help fight Sedgwick, leaving 25,000 under Stuart to face Hooker's 75,000 (Hooker didn't do anything); that night, Sedgwick pulls troops back over the Rappahannock, knowing Hooker seems to have given up

Hooker ignores vote for counterattack

May 4, 1863

Council of war, where majority of Union commanders voted to counterattack; Hooker instead decides to retreat across the river

Union forces retreat across the river

May 5, 1863

During a rainstorm

Lee and men leave Fredericksburg for Pennsylvania

June 3, 1863

Get into Pennsylvania with almost no issue; during the trek, Lee forbade troops from pillaging Pennsylvania to show they were better than the north, but some troops did it anyway, ransacking southern Pennsylvania for food and sending black people down South to be slaves
Lee wanted to do so (not ransack) because he wanted to start peace proposals; exchanging of prisoners had stopped b/c CSA refused to do so for blacks, but Stephens decided to meet with Lincoln to discuss exchange under flag of truce (he left July 3)

Union cav. crosses Rapp. to see what Lee's doing

June 9, 1863

25 miles north of Fredericksburg; find JEB Stuart napping (embarrassing for him); rebel cavalry push them back

Stuart gets in rear of Union infantry

June 25, 1863

Gets cut off from Lee for about a week, so Lee doesn't get crucial info about his enemy's movements

Hooker is replaced by Meade

June 28, 1863

Union troops (90,000) are in Frederick, Maryland; Longstreet Hill's corps were 40 miles north near Chambersburg, Pennsylvania; Ewell's corps at York and Carlisle; Lee was separated from his base and living off the land; A.P. Hill learned there was a large supply of shoes in Gettysburg, so he authorized a division to go there July 1

John Buford and cavalry meet Hill's troops at Gettysburg

July 1, 1863

Buford tells John Reynolds, an infantry commander, to bring back ups; Reynolds comes and is shot through the head and 2/3 of his men are lost (die? pg 654)
Ewell drives back Howard's corps
Lee wants the high ground on Cemetery Hill (where Yankees are); he tells Ewell to attack it "if practicable," but Ewell doesn't do it
At night, more Union corps arrive and build up position on the hill

Battle of Gettysburg

July 1, 1863 - July 3, 1863

Longstreet wanted a more defensive strategy where CSA troops would get between the Union army and Washington so that CSA could choose where to fight and Union army would wear itself out like at Fredericksburg; Lee wanted to take advantage of high morale and destroy the other army
23,000 Union casualties (over 1/4 of the army); 28,000 CSA casualties (over 1/3 of the army)

Longstreet ordered to attack Union left

July 2, 1863

Left holding southern end of Cemetery Ridge; Ewell would demonstrate against the Union right and attack once troops from the right were dispatched to strengthen the left (once he had opportunity from Sickles leaving lines vulnerable, Ewell's attack fizzled out)
Longstreet told to attack as early in the day as possible, but his troops weren't in position until 4 pm
Longstreet didn't find soldiers where he'd been told they'd be; Daniel Sickles, commanding Union left, made unauthorized move to higher ground 1/2 mile forward - he was disconnected from rest of line and vulnerable to attack from both sides
Longstreet didn't inform Lee of changed position because he had repeatedly been ordered to attack and didn't want to be rebuffed again
Sickles leaving left part of the hills vulnerable, so rebel troops from Alabama came and attacked; a Union brigade, including former teacher Colonel Joshua L. Chamberlain, held them off for 3 hours; when Union brigade had lost 1/3 of men and had run out of artillery, they charged with bayonets, sending rebels flying
Elsewhere in vulnerable line on the hills, Hancock ordered 262 soldiers of 1st Minnesota to charge at 1200 rebels to hold them back long enough for reinforcements; 47 survived
Sickles' corps was crushed and his leg was shattered; Meade sent reinforcements, as did Hill, but fighting had to stop when darkness fell
McPherson says (pg 660) that rebels were unorganized in maneuvering while Union forces were organized, collected; each side suffered 9,000 or more casualties that day
Lee for some reason thought they were winning and Union was about to cave; for the next day, he planned on Pickett leading attack on Meade's center, Stuart in the back, and Ewell attacking the right; Meade that night told commander of the center that Lee was sure to attack there.

Gettysburg day 3

July 3, 1863

At first light, fighting at Union right at Culp's Hill - federal troops had come at dawn to retake abandoned trenches now in hands of rebels; succeeded after 7 hours and hurt Lee's plan to simultaneously attack the right while attacking the center
Longstreet again told Lee to go around Meade's left, but Lee ordered LS and Picket with some of Hill's troops (15,000 men total) to walk across 3/4 mile of open field to Meade's center
At 1:07 pm and for a couple hours, artillery duel (some 300 guns) that could be heard in Pittsburgh - meant to soften up lines to prepare for attack on center, but rebel aim was high so it didn't hurt Union forces much (General Henry J Hunt had ordered Union forces to cease fire to save artillery and draw rebels closer)
Pickett ordered to charge at 3 pm; only about half of 14,000 rebel troops returned from charge; Pickett lost 2/3 of his division and all his colonels were killed or wounded
Lee apologized to his troops for the loss but rallied them; Hancock tried to convince Meade to counterattack but he didn't (didn't know state of the enemy or that Stuart had been stopped in his rear)

Lee can't cross river

July 4, 1863

Swollen river due to rain; CSA pontoon bridge had been destroyed by Union troops; this would have been the perfect time for Meade to attack, but he didn't get his troops in line until the 12th; he planned on attacking the 13th but postponed it to the 14th because a pretend CSA deserter said CSA troops were ready to fight, at which time CSA had escaped

While Lincoln thought he'd lost the perfect opportunity to destroy Lee's army, McPherson isn't sure that an attack would have succeeded (pg 667)

Meade offered resignation, but Lincoln refused to accept it; he wrote a letter that he ended up not sending (started out soothing, saying how much L appreciated him, went on to say how Meade didn't grasp how great of an opportunity he'd lost)

Beg. of Overland Campaign

May 4, 1864

Grant starts overland campaign that will end in June with the siege of Petersburg
His goal is to get between Lee and Richmond to cut off his supplies
6 weeks, 60 miles from the wilderness to the end
Grant: 120,000 men
Lee: 65,000 men
Grant's army considered the best equipped in the history of the world: 70 mile-long train of supply wagons, 23,945 horses and 22,528 mules
Grant had 60,000 or 64,000 casualties and Lee had 36,000 (over 50%)

Battle of the Wilderness

May 5, 1864 - May 7, 1864

Considered a draw

Longstreet shot


Shot by friendly fire in the arm; 3 miles from where Jackson had been shot
Longstreet survived but was out for 5 months, during which time Lee needed him

Jeb Stuart killed

May 11, 1864

Duel with Union cavalry; part of the Overland Campaign

Cold Harbor

June 3, 1864

Part of overland campaign; Grant can see Richmond so he knows they are running out of opportunities; he orders a frontal assault on fortified CSA men; Union men wrote down their names and addresses of next of kin so that their bodies could be identified; Union failure

Lee goes to Petersburg

June 17, 1864

Starts Grant's 9 month siege
North magnified Grant's failure at achieving what he'd set out to do, but Forgie says the south got the worst of it; they lost a higher % and Lee himself had said it would only be a matter of time once he went on the defensive

Jubal Early in DC

July 11, 1864

With army of 12-15,000 men; went down the valley into MD and entered DC from the North side
Only local militia and soldiers in the military hospital were available to defend because of the overland campaign
Lincoln went to the fort himself and according to legend a future SCOTUS justice called him an ass and told him to get down
Blow to the north - they'd expected that by that time they would be in the south's capital

The Crater

July 30, 1864

Part of the siege on Petersburg; some Union troops who'd been miners decided to burrow under CSA lines and put explosives there to blow a hole in the lines
300 CSA troops were blown up; Burnside had originally planned on using black troops to go around the hole and attack, but at the last minute Meade said white troops should be used; new troops weren't instructed properly, so they ran right into the hole and were shot at, suffering 4,000 casualties
CSA sealed up the line in less than an hour

Cedar Creek

October 19, 1864

Jubal Early had been overlooked by Sheridan in the Shenandoah valley; he launched a counterattack and was doing well initially but ran low on supplies; when he went to loot federal supplies, Sheridan heard and they were defeated; the soldiers then went to join the Army of Northern Virginia

Schofield in Wilmington

March 23, 1865

90k troops; he's going to meet Sherman and go north toward Petersburg/Richmond; Johnston tries to stop the two but fails

Sheridan extends siege line

April 1, 1865

Lee has to move over soldiers, weakening line in another spot

Richmond taken

April 2, 1865

Davis got letter from Lee in church; immediately fled; Richmond evacuated and burned by rebels; Yankees raised their flag over the capitol

Grant captures 6,000

April 6, 1865

Gets ahead of Lee

Lee asks for terms

April 7, 1865

Sheridan stops Lee

April 8, 1865

Some of Lee's subordinates suggest guerrilla action, but he says that'll make the war even more destructive

Lee surrenders

April 9, 1865

Had tried to break out one last time; meets Grant at Appomattox, and Grant is more respectful than Lee; Grant paroles troops and lets them keep their horses