The U.S. as a World Power

America Claims an Empire

The Spanish- American War

1854 - 1900

* Yellow Journalism- Stylee of writing that exagerates the news to draw attention to the readers

*U.S.S Maine Explosion- In 1898 President Mckinley ordered the U.S. Maine to Cuba to bring American citizens in danger from the fighting and to protect American property
- On February 15,1898 the ship blew up in the harbor of Havana
- More than 260 men were killed
- American newspapers claimed that the Spanish had blown it up

*Spanish American War- cease-fire
-Even though the Spanish surrendered the public still favored war
- April 11th President Mckinley asked congress for permission to use force against Spain
- On April 20th U.S. declared war

*The Phillipine War- The Soanish thought Americans would take over Cuba
- On April 30th the American fleet headed towards the Philippines
- The next day General Dewey gave command to open fire on the Spanish fleet in Manila (capital of the Philippines)
-Hours later Dewey's fleet had destroyed all the Spanish ships
- Filipinos supported Dewey because they as well as the Cubans wanted to be free from Spain
- Americans decide to join forces with the Filipinos and in August the Spanish troops surrendered to the U.S

*War in the Carribean- Tjhe American troop consisted of professional force as well as inexperienced and ill-prepared volunteer force
- On June 1958 the American troop gathered at the port city of Santiago
- The land battle in Cuba took place on July 1st near Santiago
-U.S. newspapers declared Roosevelt as the hero of San Juan Hill even though he really didnt play a biog role on this battle
- Spanish fleet tries to escape the American barrier at Santiago . The naval fleet destroyed the Spanish fleet
- After winning this battle on July 25th the American troop invaded Puerto Rico

*William Randolph Hearst- Journalist, who used power to make people go to war.

  • Joseph Pulitzer- Journalist, used power to temp people to join the war.

*President William Mckinley- Tried to prevent war

  • Commodore George Dewey- The general who gave command to the American troop to fire at the Spanish fleet

  • Admiral William T. Sampson- Blocked the Spamish fleet in the harbbor of Santiago de Cuba

  • Treaty of Paris(1898)- U.S. and Spain signed a treaty to end the war
    Ended Spanish-American War

  • Spain freed Cuba

  • Spain turned over the islands of Guam, the Pacific, and Puerto Rico
    -Spain sold the Philippines to the U.S.

Imperialism and America

1867 - 1898

*U.S. Acquisition of Alaska- In 1867 William Seward tries to arrange for the U.S. to buy Alaska but he wasn'y able to convince the House of Representatives to want to purchase
- In 1959 Alaska becomes a state
- The U.S decides to buy the land for 2 cents an acre
-The land had plenty of minerals, oil, and timber

*U.S. Acquisition of the Midway Islands- In 1867 after buying Alaska they took over the Midway Islands
- Located in the Pacific Islands 1300 miles away from Hawaii
- No one lived there
- No one was attracted to it

  • U.S. Acquisistion of Hawaii- In the 1820's Yamkee missionarries built christian schools and churches
  • Their children became sugar planters and sold most of their crops to the U.S. -In 1875 thew U.S. decided to let Hawaii import their sugar duty-free but after they saw that their production increased about nine times they eliminated the duty-free
  • American planters in Hawaii then decided that they should let the US. take over their islands so they wouldn't have to pay the duty anymore
  • In 1887 after taking over the US. decided to build a naval base at Pearl Harbor
  • In 1898 Congress declared Hawaii as American territory even though Hawaiins never had the chance to vote -In 1959 Hawaii became the 50th state of the U.S.

*Admiral Alfred Mahan- General of the U.S. Navy who pushed government officials to build up on American Naval power in order to compete with other powerful nations
- With his help the U.S was able to build steel-hulled cruisers and the construction of battleships

*President William Mckinley- In 1897 Mckinley who also favored taking over the islands became president of Cleaveland

*Sanford B. Dole- He led government and defeated Queen Lilioukalani with help of marines

America as a World Power

1900 - 1911

*Acquisition of Panama Canal- The canal represented a confident nation that refused to let anything stand in its way
- The U.S. wanted to build a canal to reduce the travel time of its commercial and military ships
- They decided to built it on the Panama route because it was shorter and it had been started before by the French
-They bought the route and the U.S. had to make sure Colombia was ok with it
- Panama and the U.S. sign a treaty that said the U.S. would pay $10 million for the canal zone and an annual rent of
250,000

*Intervention in the Mexican Revolution- After one of Huerta's officers arrested a small group of Americans Wilson used the incident to send U.S. Marines to stay in Veracruz.
- 18 Americans died as well as 200 Mexicans during Wilson's invasion

- Argentina, Brazil and Chile tried to fix the conflict and suggested that Wilson should get away without paying any damages and Huerta should

*Roosevelt Corollary- Roosovelt claimed that the U.S. had the right to protect its economic interests

*Dollar Diplomacy- A policy that used the nations economic power to use its influence over other countries

Acquiring New Lands

1900 - 1946

*Governing Puerto Rico- Some Puerto Ricans wanted independence others wanted to become an official state of the U.S.
- The military that occupied the island took control over the Puerto Ricans until Congress said otherwise
- General Miles told them that the American troop was there to protect them and their property
- In 1900 milary rule ended thanks to the Foraker Act
- Puerto Ricans would only be able to elect only members of the lower legislatures house
-In 1917 Puerto Ricans were granted the right of becoming citizens and the right to elect from both houses of the legislature

*Philippine-American War- In February 1899 the Filipinos revolted since the U.S. had promised them independence
- When they found out about the treaty they promised to fight for their freedom
- So Americans decided to force Filipinos to live in designated areas where poor sanitation, starvation, and diseases killed thousands of them.
-After questioning why where African Americans helping with all that bad stuff some decided to take the Filipinos side and formed friendships
-The Philippines became an independent republic on July 4th 1946

*Boxer Rebellion- Chiniese people fromed groups to get rid of the "foreign devils"
- One of the groups were the Boxers they were called that because its members practiced martial arts
-They killed many missionaries,foreigners, and Chinese people who had converted to Christianity

- On August 1900 four troops ( Britain, France. Germany, and Japan) joined American soldiers and headed towards the Chinese capital. Where they put an end to the Boxer Rebellion

*Jose Marti- Cuban patriot who led the movement of independence from Spain

*Secretary of State John Jay- He issued the Open Door Notes to protect American interests

*John Jay's Open Door Notes- Letters sent to imperialist nations suggesting that they share their trading rights with te U.S.

The First World War

WW1 Begins

1914 - 1919

*Alliance System- Two defense alliances in Europe
Triple Entente (Allies)- France, Britain, and Russia
Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
Central Powers- Germany and Austria-Hungary with Ottoman Empire (An empire of middle eastern lands controlled by Turks)

*Balkan's and Ethnic Rivalries- Ethnic groups looked for protection in other nations. Since many Serbs served under Austria-Hungary they couldn't fight each other because that would cause problems in the ethnicity.

*War and the "booming" U.S. Economy- The war with Germany against the allies brougth the U.S economy with the allies a lot stronger.
-Before the war the U.S trade with france was a little more than twice the trade with Germany
-Two years into the war the allies kept asking for more and more weapons and supplies until the U.S. started getting short in labor

*"A world safe of Democracy"- The U.S warned Germany that if they didnt change their strategy they would break off any diplomatic relations they had with them

*President Wilson and the "peace" effort- Wilson expected that with that the nations would join "a league for peace" and maintain freedom of the seas

*Wilson's "peace without victory" speech- Said that neither side should set rough terms on the other

American Power Tips the Balance

1916 - 1918

*U.S. Military Industrial Production- In 1917 congress passes the Selective Service Act that recquired for men to register for the government and be randomly selected for military service.
- They needed to find a way to transport their food, men, etc.. so they campaigned to point out thre importance of shipyard workers
-They nbuilt the ship in parts and then they just put it all together at the big yard

*Convoy's System- A systmin which big guard destroyers would escort merchant ships across the Atlamtic in groups

*Nov. 3,1918- Germany collapses they were to tired to fight anymore so they just signed the treaty and ended the war

*Selective Service Act of 1917- Recquired for men to register for the government and be randomly selected for military service

World War Looms

Dictators threaten World Peace

1920 - 1940

*Rise of Totalitarian Governments: Stalin transforms Russia- Stalin created a communist state
- Agricultural and industrial growth were his main goals in the Soviet Union
- He abolished al privately owned farms and made them government owened farms
- He made all economic activity to be under state management In 1939 he established a totalitarian government in which he tried to take complete control of its citizens

*Mussolini and Fascism in Italy- Mussoloni also estanblished a totalitarian government in Italy
- In 1921 he established the Fascist Party in which the stressed nationalism focused more on the state than on the individuals

*Imperialist in Japan- National military leaders tried to take control of the imperial gov. in Japan
- They like hitler also belived that they needed more living space for population growth
-In 1931 they took control of the Chinese provence Manchuria
- Afeter Japan quit the league the militarists took control over Japan's gov.

*US clings to Isolationism - Books would say that the U.S wewre greedy bankers and arm dealers
- They documented the profits and manufacures they had made during the war
- Then the U.S. was determined to avoid any war
- After Roosevelt took office hye recognized the Soviet Union
- In 1935 congress passed Neutrality Acts which outlawed sales or loans to nations at war

*Nationalism- Loyalty to one's country above anything

*Failure of the Treaty of Versailles-

*Hitler and Nazism in Germany- Nazi party had no ties with socialism
- Hitler was the party leader
- Nazism (fascism) was based on nationalism
- The Nazis' aimed to secure German land and soil that was "entitled to them on earth"
-In 1932 the Nazi Party became the strongest political party in Germany
- In 1933 Hitler became the prime minister of Germany

Holocaust

1933 - 1945

*"Night of the broken glass"- The Nazis attacked Jewish homes and businesses across Germany
- The Nazis smashed shop windows and the city main streets were all trashed up
- 100 Jews were killed and/or injured
- 30,000 Jews were arrested and hundreds were burned
-Nazis blamed the Jews for the destruction

*Ghettos- Isolated Jewish areas in certain Polish cities

*Concentration camps- Labor camps

*SS- "security squadron"

*Auschwitz- One of the death camps
-As prisoners arrived the doctors separated those strong enough to work from the ones that would die that day.

*"In search of ways to improve the Master race"-

*Josef Mengele-

*Heinrich Himmler-

*Nuremberg Laws (1935) US Immigration Policy-"persons of exceptional merit"-

*The Final Solution-

*Final stage-

War in Europe

1937 - 1940

*Unification with Austria- The majority of Austria's population were Germans and they favored the unification with German
- In 1938 German troops marched in Austria and they were unopposed
-The next day the union with Austria was complete and the U.S. did nothing to stop that

*Blitzkrieg in Poland- Germans tested their new military strategy during the invasion of Poland Blitzkrieg helped made advances is military technology like fast tanks and powerful aircrafts so they would be able to take theri enemies by surprise and crush them

*Fall of the Maginot Line and France- he Germans trapped French and British soldiers that fled to Dunkirk
- Italy entered the war took Germany's side and invaded south of France while the Nazis took the North

*Battle of Britain- Germany launched an air war as well as a naval one.
- Germany's goal was to take control of the sky by destroying Britain's air force
- On 1940 a few weeks later after shooting down more than 185 of Germany's plane the Germans gave up with the invasion

*Neville Chamberlain- British prime minister

*Edouard Daladier- French premier

*Charles de Gaulle- French General

*Winston Churchill- Chamberlain's political rival in Great Britain

*Munich Agreement- Agreement in which Sudetenland turned into Germany without any shots being fired.

*Russia & Germany's "non-aggression pact"- Germany and Russia devoted to never attack each other

America Moves Toward War

1939 - 1941

*Axis Powers- The treaty between Germany, Italy and Japan
- Aimed to keep the U.S. out of the wars
-Each nation agreed to defend one another in case of any attack

*Axis war strategy-"US and a two ocean war"- Fighting in both the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean

*June 1941- Germany attacks Soviet Union- Hitler deployed German submarines to attack supply ships

*"great arsenal of defense" , US support for Stalin- Hitler broke the agreement he had with Stalin to invade the Soviet Union
- Roosevelt sent supplies to Stalin while other Americans opposed to help them

*The US "undeclared war"- US got involved in an undeclared war with Hitler
- Japan brought the US into war

*US and Japan peace talks- Prime minister of Japan promised that the Japanese government would try to have peace with Americans
-On 1941 the Japanese navy prepared for an attack on the US
-US military broke the Japan's secret communication codes and knew that Japan was preparing to attack but didn't know where they would come from

*Attack on Pearl Harbor- A Japanese dive-bomber went over Pearl harbor
- Behind came 180 warplanes launched from 6 carriers
- In less than 2 hours the Japanese killed 2,40o Americans and injured about 1,180
- Sunk and /or damaged 21 ships
-300 aircrafts were damaged or destroyed

*Declaration of War - Dec. 8th, 1941- When the Japanese launched an unprovoked attack
- Congress approved Roosevelt's request for declaration of war against Japan
- 3 days later Germany and Italy declared war to the US

*FDR- Proposed to extend term draftees
- Roosevelt prepared for the war he knew was to come

*Winston Churchill- Chamberlain's political rival in Great Britain

*3-Term President-

*Lend Lease Act (1941)- Allowed the US to ship supplies without immediate payment to nations fighting the Axis powers

*Atlantic Charter- The US and Great Britain set goals in opposing axis powers

The U.S. in WWII

Home Front

1941 - 1945

*War produces economic gain for workers- Weekly pay rose 10 percent during the war
- Workers invested about half of their pay check in war bonds
-Their was good weather to pant crops and farmers were able to sell their crops at a higher price
- Before war ended the farmers were able to pay off their mortgages
- Women were given the opportunity to have good jobs during the war but once it was over they all lost them
- There was a total of 35 percent women working for the armed forces

*Increased role of women as workers- 6 million women entered the armed forces
- They were offered challenging work and better pay than usual women jobs (waitressing)
- war gave women opportunities to show they were able to do certain duties that were thought only men could do

*Population Shifts- Americans started to look for somewhere else to go and find work since the economy wasn't that well
- Some populations doubled and/or tripled
- African Americans left the South to cities in the North

*Racial Tensions- Anti- Mexican riots
- Attackers ripped up their victims clothes and beat them
- Hundred Mexican American youths were beat
-Mexican Americans thought that all they went through during war would lead to a better future

Due to a rumor of a black woman being killed with her child so a group of black rioters killed 17 whites
- When Roosevelt got involved 9 white men ad 25 blacks were killed
- African Americans were determined to not give up what they had already gained

*Internment of Japanese Americans- War department asked for the evacuation of all Japanese Americans from Hawaii
-The military governor of Hawaii tried to resist the order but eventually was forced to begin the internment and sent about 1 percent of Hawaii's Japanese American population
- In 1942 Roosevelt signed an order that required the removal of Japanese ancestry from California, Washington, Oregon and Arizona
-The army had 110,000 Japanese Americans and sent them to relocation centers for prison camps

*(JACL)- Wanted the government to pay those Japanese Americans sent to the camps for their lost property

*James Farmer- Civil rights leader that founded the Congress of Racial Equality organization to face urban separation in the North

*Executive Order 9066-

*Korematsu v. US- Japanese Americans fought for justice in court

- The supreme court decided that the reason why the governments evacuated Japanese Americans was to clear on military necessity.

Mobilizing for Defense

1941

*Selective Service recruitment- After Pearl Harbor the selective service system gathered another 10 million soldiers so to meet their arm forced needs
- Volunteers and draftees trained for about 8 weeks
-Sergeants tried their best to turn raw recruits into battle-ready Gi's

*Contributions from minority groups- 30,000 Mexican Americans joined the armed force, they made up about one tenth of the population in L.A.
- Around 1 million African Americans joined the military, they lived and worked in segregated units
- 13,000 Asian Americans join the military, they crawled to hear Japanese officers' commands and made translations to the soldiers
- 25,000 Native Americans joined the armed services,

*Industrial Contributions- Factories across the nation started making weapons for the army like nets and bottles to fill up with explosives
- Shipyards expanded and one of the industrialists Henry J. Kaiser built seven new shipyards, tankers and troop transports

*Labor's Contribution- in 1944 about 18 million workers labored for war industries
- More than 6 million were women, they operated welding, torches and riveting guns as well as the men
- 2 million minority workers were also hired, they were considered the janitors
- Phillip's march on Washington led on to Roosevelt calling employers and laborer unions saying they had to provide equal participation without discrimination

*Manhattan Project- Was the code name for research work across the country

*War Bonds- To fight inflation OPA froze prices on most of the goods and Congress raised income tax and taxes to people who had never paid before
- High taxes left workers with less to spend
- Government supported Americans to start buying war bonds
- With all that done inflation was still low 30 percent

*Henry J. Kaiser- Industrialist who built seven new shipyards to serve as cargo carriers for the army

*Albert Einstein- Wrote letter to president warning him about the German' s could use their discovery and create a weapon with huge destructive power

*Government Economic Controls- OPA froze prices on goods
-Raised taxes

*War Production Broad- Made sure that army forces had what they needed
- They decided what companies would have to create goods for the army and assigned certain raw materials to key industries

*Treasury Department- Made war bonds public to raise money for war effort and fight inflation

War for Europe and North America

1941
  • "Europe first, then Japan"- Ro0sevelt and his advisors believed that Germany was a greater threat than Japan so they went against Hitler first
    • After taking control in Europe they went for Japan

*Battle of the Atlantic- Germans wanting to prevent food and war supplies to get to Great Britain
- After Germans destroyed 681 allied ships the allies gathered and formed convoys
- With their tracking the allies were able to destroy German U-boats really quick

*Battle of Stalingrad- Germans wanted to take control over Stalingrad
- In the summer of 1942 Germans attacked and took control of about nine tenths of the city
- But in the winter the Soviets counterattacked and fought until the Germans surrendered
- Their victory marked a turning point in war

*D-Day- The first day of the invasion of Normandy under Eisenhower's command

*Battle of the Bulge- In 1944 Americans take over Aachen
- Hitler wanted to get it back so he ordered his troops to break through Allied lines
Hitler hoped his victory would split American and British forces and break up their allied supply lines
- German tanks drove into allied territories creating like a bump in the lines

  • "Unconditional Surrender"- Germany- Soviet army went over to Berlin -They shot Berlin soldiers and hung people from the trees -Hitler blamed Jews for the war and them losing -Hitler got married and a few weeks later surrendered and he shot himself and his wife swallowed poison -A week after their death General Eisenhower announced the surrender of the Third Reich

*V-E Day- Victory in Europe day. War in Europe was finally over

*Dwight D. Eisenhower- Commander who led the victory of North Africa and led the invasion of Normandy.

  • "II Deuce- the most hated man in Italy"-

*Harry S. Truman- Vice President that became the nation's 33rd president after President Roosevelt died