Byzantine Empire Timeline

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667

667 B.C.

The ancient city of Byzantium (the future Constantinople and Istanbul) is founded, according to legend, by Megarian colonists.

330 AD

330 AD

Constantine founds the new capital of the Roman Empire on the existing site of the ancient Greek city Byzantium: Byzantium was renamed Constantinople and it would become the capital of the Byzantine Empire.

395 AD

395 AD

The Roman Empire divides in half, with the Eastern Roman Empire based in Constantinople and the Western Roman Empire based in Rome/Ravenna.

476 AD

476 AD

The Western Empire Falls: The Eastern Empire survives and now is labeled as the Byzantine Empire.

526 AD

526 AD

Justinian's reign begins. He reconquers parts of the fallen Western Empire (Africa and Italy, Spain). He codifies the Previous Roman Laws into one document. Constantinople is the most glorious city in europe, with 500,000 inhabitants. The Hagia Sofia is constructed. Justinian is the last emperor to use the title "Caesar".

527 AD

527 AD

Justinian crowned emperor

537 AD

537 AD

Hagia Sophia is built

568 AD

568 AD

Lombards invade Italy, eventually taking Northern Italy from the Byzantines.

610 AD

610 AD

Heraclius becomes emperor. Temporary possession of Mesopotamia. The theme system is installed. The Empire's language changes to Greek. Eventual Lost of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt to Muslims.

690 AD

690 AD

Loss of North Africa to Muslims.

693 AD

693 AD

Muslims attack Constantinople.

717-718 AD

717 AD - 718 AD

A large Muslim force besiege Constantinople by land and sea. The attack is held off.

721 AD

721 AD

Regains control of Asia Minor from the Muslims

726 AD

726 AD

Emperor Leo III bans the use of Icons.

800 AD

800 AD

Charlemagne, king of the Franks, is crowned "Emperor of the Romans" by Pope Leo III in Rome. For the first time in 300 years, there is an emperor of the "East" and an emperor of the "West".

843 AD

843 AD

The use of Icons is restored.

917 AD

917 AD

Bulgars under Symeon overrun Thrace.

924 AD

924 AD

Bulgars unsuccessfully attack Constantinople unsuccessfully.

941 AD

941 AD

Prince Igor of Kiev attacks Bithynia and later attacks Constantinople: The Byzantines destroys the Russian fleet.

976 AD

976 AD

Basil II becomes Emperor.

992 AD

992 AD

Venetians granted extensive trading rights in the Byzantine Empire

995 AD

995 AD

Basil II reconquers Syria from the Muslims.

996 AD

996 AD

Basil II reconquers Greece from Bulgars.

1014 AD

1014 AD

Basil II destroys the Bulgar army, earning the epithet Bulgaroktonos ("Bulgar Slayer").

1054 AD

1054 AD

The Great Schism: The Latin Roman Church and the Greek Orthodox Church excommunicate each other.

1055 AD

1055 AD

Loss of southern Italy to the Normans.

1071 AD

1071 AD

Defeat at Manzikert to the Seljuk Turks. Permanent loss of most of Asia Minor.

1075 AD

1075 AD

Loss of Syria to Muslims.

1087 AD

1087 AD

Byzantines defeated in Thrace.

1095 AD

1095 AD

Alexius appeals to Urban II at Council of Piacenza for help against the Turks. The First Crusade is proclaimed at Council of Clermont.

1096 AD

1096 AD

Crusaders arrive at Constantinople. The Crusaders are successful, but eventually withdraw from cooperation with the Byzantines.

1121 AD

1121 AD

Reconquest of southwestern Asia Minor.

1179 AD

1179 AD

Byzantine Army defeated by the Sultanate of Rum at Myriokephalon. Hopes of regaining Asia Minor are lost.

1202 AD

1202 AD

Fourth Crusade is assembled at Venice.

1204 AD

1204 AD

Fourth Crusade captures Constantinople. The Latin Empire of Constantinople is formed as well as many Byzantine successor states. The capture of Constantinople in 1204 was a blow from which the Byzantines never fully recovered.

1261 AD

1261 AD

The successor state of Nicaea recaptures Constantinople and restores the Byzantine Empire.

1453 AD

1453 AD

Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans. End of the Byzantine Empire.