By: Andes Lee
This conflict came to public attention in 1791 Hamilton and Jefferson both disagreed with each other strongly. for example the need of a Bill of Rights, Local Government or industrializing america, they kept on disagreeing with each other each having a different opinion. Hamilton and Jefferson are both very intelligent men but they argue a lot. for example Jefferson thinks riots now and then are a good thing and healthy for the government now and then but Hamilton thinks that it is unnecessary to fight.
This war was a result of the XYZ affair. Sometimes referred to as the Undeclared War With France, the Pirate Wars, or the Half-War because this war was mostly fought on sea.
This all started because France(currently at war with Britain) issued an order to take any American ship in 1796. W, X, Y, & Z are the substituted letters of the French Agents. The agents said that they would only discuss a treaty if the US Government gave them $250,000 as a bribe. When the Americans refused to meet their demands, the agents gave up and met with them, they dropped the demands for the war loan but refused to stop seizure of American ships. Adam asked Congress to make enough ships to have more than 30 ships. Congress also passed his demand for a peacetime army of many thousand troops. When President Adams received reports of the negotiations he ask Congress to prepare for war with France. Except the Federalist where annoyed because of money issues and rallied around the slogan, "Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute.". This affair resulted in an undeclared war called the Quasi-War
4 bills that allowed the President to remove any foreign resident from the country who seemed like a Danger to "peace and safety" or they could be removed if they were in "any treasonable or plots against the US Government". One of these 4 bills (the Naturalization Act) required an Alien to live in the US from 5-14 years before the Alien could become an citizen.
On 1812, the Congress declared war on the British. At sea, the US had fewer than 20 ships and the British had hundreds. Even though they were outnumbered, they gave licences to privately owned ships to attack the British. the Privateers captured hundreds of British merchant ships, the US ships carried more cannons than on a regular British ship and almost always won on 1 vs 1 duels on other British ships. In 1813, the United States attacked the Canadian capitol, York in April. Then US moved to seize control of Lake Erie, the British lost and gave the US army new hope. Harrison pursued the British forces with American Indian allies into Canada. They caught up with the British in October and fought the Battle of the Thames. British defenses broke but Tecumseh was killed and weakened the Indian-British alliance. The Creek Indians decided to help the British and attacked Fort Mims in present day Alabama. Andrew Jackson led his soldiers to fight Chief Red Eagle. Jackson won the Battle of Horseshoe Bend and led to a treaty to force the Creek to give up millions of acres of their land. In the East, British defeated France in April 1814 and sent more troops to the US capitol. President Madison, most of his cabinet and officials were forced to flee when they broke though their defenses. British marched to burn down the White House and other government buildings. After the attack of the US capitol, the British decided to attack New Orleans and control the Mississippi river because waterways are key. Jackson was in command of a mix of regular US soldiers, Militia, and pirates led by Jean Laffite. They fortified their defenses by building walls by logs and dirt and waited for the attack by the British. Jacksons force was outnumbered 5,300 to 4,500 but the British Troops were out in the open. US attacked the british with riflemen, and Artillery, in the end the British lost 2,000 and Americans had 70 casualties
Before the battle of New Orleans, the U.S. and British diplomats finally agreed to end the frustrating war of 1812 on December 24, 1814 in Belgium. Although no diplomats found a solution to the problems of trade they agreed to meet about the remaining issues once there was peace.
First President of the United States to resign near the end of his 2nd term was Washington. The letter was written and once given to the public, newspapers started printing out copies and then later in pamphlet form. The work was later named "Farewell Address" because Washington resigned after 20 years of service.