Traded with ancient Greece, Egypt, and asia
Exported: rhino horns, tortoise shells, ivory, emeralds, gold
Imported: cloth, glass, olive oil, wine, brass, iron and copper
Muslim Arabs invaded Capital city of Adulis and ended trade.
Gold, Iron, farming, trade etc.
Located on the fringes of the Sahara in West Africa. Their people the Soninke spoke Mandu. King named Ghana which led to the name of the empire. Rule passed through maternal line, viewed as divine. Taxed trade passing through their land. Expanded to S and taxed gold production.
Muslim traders came through with salt, cloth, copper, steel, cowry shells, figs, dates, glass beads and slaves.
Muslims were literate and is the reason we know so much about the Soninkites.
Becomes comercial center. Muslim traders start building houses and thus forms intellectual center as well.
Berber = major competitor city of Awdaghost (NW)-water, cattle, millet, wheat, grapes, figs and dates grown. 990 conquered by Ghana-->Ghana at peak of power
Abu Bakr-leader of Sanhaja movement. Joined by Muslims in W Africa, Almoravids and Muslim Berbers
Almoravid rule for a few years, held control of gold trade.
Conversion to Islam.
Berber herdsman move into Soninke lands and they are overgrazed=decrease in agriculture.
Sosso people of Kaniaga overrun capitol, Kumbi.
Evidence of civilization dating back to 700BCE
ife ife means place of dispersion
Great organizational skills, powerful cavalry --> largest W African state.
largest wester empire precolonial
Construction of stone monuments began in 1000 and continued until 1400.
Arabian and Persians trade with ivory, rhino horn, gold, shells and slaves
Create city of Zimbabwe
Current day ZImbabwe and E Botswana and SE Mozambique
Famous for stonemasonry traditions
Portuguese introduce Christianity
Documentation of monument discovery
Languages, laws and customs spread along the Niger river
Crowned Mansa after The Battle of Kirina
He was well known for his piligrimage and his generousity. Mali also reached its peaks when he was in rule. It prospered more then any country at the time, and also was rich in farm land and agricultural.
The empire began to rapidly decline in the 14th centruy due to the songhai army and Mansa Musa's death. By about the 16th century Mali was no more then a few towns.
Decline of the Empire of Mali, which loses dominance of the gold trade to the Songhai Empire, which makes its base in Timbuktu