Ch 26 War and Revolution

Single Events

Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assinated

June 28, 1914
  • Gavrilo Princip of the Black Hand (Yugoslavic) at Sarajevo, Bosnia

German submarine sinks British passenger ship Lusitania

May 1915
  • 1,000 lives --> 139 U.S. citizens
  • President Woodrow Wilson used it to incite propaganda against the Germans

Chief minister of Austria is assassinated

October 1916
  • young socialist assassinator

Vera Brittain writes Testament of Youth

1933
  • anti-war autobiography

Wars & Battles

Franco-Prussian War

1870 - 1871
  • war = glorious, manly, heroic, quick, test of strength, national unity and renewal

South African War

1880

Afrikaners and British in South Africa

Russo-Japanese War

1904 - 1905

Revolution of 1905 in Russia

1905

First Morocan Crisis

1905
  • William II declared that Morocco was an independent, soverign state but wanted Germany to have the same trading rights as France
  • violated French colonial interests
  • international conference (Britain and France closer, Germany left with nothing)

Russo-Japanese War

1907

First Balkan War

1912
  • Serbia joined by Greece and Bulgaria attack the Ottoman Empire and then quarreled with Bulgaria over victory

Second Balkan War

1913
  • Bulgaria attacks Serbia and Greece
  • Austria intervened and forced Serbia to give up Albania

WWI

1914 - 1918

Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia

July 23, 1914
  • unconditional ultimatum which violated Serbian sovereignty --> declined
  • last-ditch attempt to save empire (nationalism)

Russia declares war

July 29, 1914
  • Tsar Nicholas II ordered full mobilization and thus declares war

Battles of Tannenberg

August 1914
  • Germans win over Russians

War begins, Ottoman Empire joins Central Powers

August 1914
  • "total war" Erich Ludendorff
  • Russian armies immediately attacked eastern Germany
  • trench warfare

Germany invades Belgium

August 3, 1914
  • Schlieffen Plan- failed German plan calling for a lightning attack through neutral Belgium and a quick defeat of France before turning on Russia

Great Britain declares war on Germany

August 4, 1914
  • Great Britain had signed alliance saying that they would help Belgium if invaded

Battles of Masurian Lakes

September 1914
  • Germans win over Russians

Battle of the Marne

September 6, 1914 - September 9, 1914
  • French attacked German line
  • French gov. desperately requisitioned all the taxis of Paris to rush reserves to the troops at the front
  • result: Germans fell back

400 miles of defensive trenches

November 1914

Eastern Front stabilized in German's favor

1915

Battle of Gallipoli

April 25 1915 - January 9 1916

-British forces tried and failed to take the Dardanelles and Constantinople from Ottoman Turks
- result: 300,000 Turks and 265,000 British men killed, wounded, or missing

Battle of Verdun

1916

Battle of Somme

July 1, 1916 - November 18,1916
  • northern France
  • British vs. Germans
  • 7:30 am British goes "over the top" and attack

  • shook troop morale and public opinion

  • result: 20,000 British killed and 40,000 on first day of the attack

  • 420,000 British, 200,000 French, 600,000 Germans killed

Battle of Caporetto

1917
  • northern Italy
  • Italian army collapsed in despair

U.S. declares war on Germany

April 1917
  • war at sea
  • general sympathy

Britain and Arabs invade Syria

1918

Alliances

Triple Alliance is formed

1894

Austria, Germany, and Italy

Dual Alliance is formed

1894

Russia and France

Britain gains alliance with Japan

1902

Anglo-French Entente

1904

Britain and France

Anglo-Russia Agreement

August 31, 1907

Triple Entente formed

August 31, 1907
  • Due to Anglo-Russian Agreement
  • Britain, Russia, and France

Central Powers are formed

October 1914
  • Austria joins Germany

Italy joins the Triple Entente

May 1915
  • neutral in 1914 on the grounds that Austria had launched a war of aggression
  • wanted in return promises of Austrian territory

Bulgaria joins Central Powers

October 14 1915
  • joins Ottomans, Austria and Germany

Territories Conflicts

Balkans "tinderbox of Europe"

1900 - 1914
  • Western powers had successfully forced the Ottoman rulers to give up their European territories

Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina

1908

Britain occupies Basra, Iraq (Ottoman province)

1914

Armenians welcome Russian armies

1915
  • before: fighting between Ottomans and Russians, and Turk repression
  • wanted Russia to liberate them from the Ottoman Empire
  • German support + Ottomans ordered a mass deportation of its Armenian citizens from there homeland

Hussein ibn-Ali revolts againest Turks

1916
  • king of the Arabs

Britain captures Baghdad, Iraq (Ottoman province)

1917

Arab win against the Turks with British help

1917
  • T.E. Lawrence of Britain
  • guerrila war
  • Arabian penisula

Movements

"July Crisis"

July 1914 - August 1914
  • massive crowds thronged the streets of Paris, London, St. Petersburg, Berlin and Vienna
  • shouted enthusiastic pro-war slogans
  • pushed politicians and military leaders toward the increasingly inevitable confrontation

Armenian Genocide

1915 - 1918
  • German army occupations a lot of central Europe
  • military bureaucracy
  • anti-slavic prejudices
  • "mongrels" who were unable to work like "other, more joyously productive races
  • used prisoners of war and refugees as forced labor and stole animals and crops from local farmers to supply the occupying army or sent home to Germany
  • 1/3 of civilian population was killed or became refugees under the occupation

Easter Rebellion

April 1916
  • Irish nationalists in Dublin revolted against British rule
  • result: rebellion crushed and leaders executed

Karl Liebknecht lead anti-war demonstrators in Berlin

May 1, 1916
  • radical socialist leader
  • attacked cost of the war effort
  • Liebknecht arrested and imprisoned

Political

Germany begins to threaten Great Briatin

1880 - 1890
  1. Commercial rivalry
  2. imperialism
  3. expanded battle fleet

William II of Germany dismisses Bismarck

1890

Bismarck wanted to form an alliance with Russia but William II did not

Arab leader Hussein ibn-Ali is sharif of Mecca

1916 - 1918
  • direct descendant of the prophet Muhammad
  • controlled Hejaz
  • 1915 managed to win vague British commitments for an independent Arab kingdom

Emperor Francis Joseph dies

November 1916

Bethmann-Hollweg of Germany forced out of office

1917
  • Germany dictorial decree
  • Generals Hindenburg and Ludendorff drove out the Chancellor
  • ultimate mobilization for the war
  • first totalitarian society

German Communist Party in formed

1918

Laws & Institutions

Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assinated

June 28, 1914

Gavrilo Princip of the Black Hand (Yugoslavic) at Sarajevo, Bosnia

Britian's Ministry of Munitions organizes private industry

1915
  • war production
  • allocated labor
  • set wages and prices rates
  • settled labor disputes

Walter Rathenau sets up War Raw Material Board in Germany

1915
  • Jewish industrialists
  • largest electric company
  • ration and distribute raw materials
  • useful material inventoried and rationed

Auxiliary Service Law

1916
  • Germany
  • all males between seventeen and sixty must work only at jobs considered critical to the war effort
  • response to Battles of Verdun and Somme
  • women started to work more

War Industries Board

July 28, 1917
  • regulated industry, labor relations, agricultural production

War Labor Board created by President Wilson

April 1918
  • regulated indutry, labor relations, and agricultural production