Southern modern-day United States. Transition from hunter-gatherer agricultural society occurs by about 500 BCE, centered around corn and squash. Pithouses.
Cultural artifacts: "Items include variety of tightly woven, well made baskets; bone awls; stone pipes; square-toed sandals with a fringe at the toe end; fur and feather robes and blankets; string and cord woven from yucca and cedar bark; oval cradles; woven bags; bone whistles and small carved bone objects identified as dice or gaming pieces; a variety of projectile points, knives, and scrapers chipped from a variety of stone types."
South-central modern-day Florida. Mounds for horticultural, not burial, purposes.
Adjustment to a settled lifestyle. Modern-day Ohio/East Coast/Sourthern Canada area. Ceramics, complex mortuary practices, extensive trade networks (copper, precious stone, animal parts), burial mounds. In ~800 CE, transition to bows and arrows (from spear).
Second wave of migration into northwestern North America. By 500 CE, they had spread as far east as Greenland.
Located in the southern Ohio region. Significance of large earthen mounds. Knowledge of geometry and astronomy. Increase in trade.
Link to map:
Extension of Basketmaker II (Pueblo) culture.
Decline in trade, building of burial mounds, artwork.
Theories: 1) overpopulation, 2) advanced tools = large game extinction, 3) climate change, 4) over-dependence (vulnerability) on horticulture.
Lead into Mississipian Culture.
Identified by "pottery forms, stone artifacts, and bone tools such as awls, fishhooks, needles, beamers, and turtle shell cups". (http://www.dhr.virginia.gov/arch_NET/timeline/late_wood.htm)
Slowly spread across eastern modern-day US. Adoption of symbolic and cultural earthen mounds. Great trade systems within the continent. Corn is central to the agricultural society.
Lief, son of Eric the Red, lands in eastern Canada. First European civilization established.
Third wave of migrants from the east (pre-Inuit culture). Domesticated animals and sophisticated tools (boats). Conquered Dorset.
Inuit expansion east into Greenland and south into southeastern modern-day Canada.
1497: John Cabot. England.
1500: Fr, Eng, Por, Spa make yearly fishing trips to Newfoundland.
Fr.: 1524 - Giovanni da Verrazano. France. Skirts NA. coast from NC to Newfoundland.
(Early N.Am. maps)
"John Cabot ... under patent from King ... of England ... reaches coast of N. America."
"The savages let loose, or The cruel fate of the Loyalists", 1783, London. Comments both on the Revolutionary War (America as savages, British as "loyalists") and on the perception of Native Americans (savage, brutal, violent).
19th cent. Ledger drawing by Lakota Bad Heart Buffalo.
Eastern Coast of modern USA. New England, VA, Carolinas, Pennsylvania, Ohio.
Pictograph signatures of Natives selling land to Pennsylvania.
Early 20th cent. Ledger art, a Plains tribe traditional way of preserving oral history. Umbrella shows integration of new European culture.
Early 20th cent. Similarly, guns portrayed speak to presence of settlers.
1689-1697: King William's War
1702-1713: Queen Anne's War
1744-1748: King George's War
1756-1763: Seven Year's War
1830: Indian Removal Act of 1830. Tribes east of the Mississippi were moved to the west under a "voluntary" program.
1887: Dawes Act (allotments)
1924: Citizenship finally granted to Natives.
"Treaty of Paris cedes most of North America to British."
1860, Andrew Jackson. "During this period when the Union was threatened, Kelly may have commissioned this sculpture to remind people of Jackson's most famous statement: 'Our Federal Union. It must be preserved.'"
1993, George Blake (Hupa/Yurok), Hang Around the Fort Injun
Trade disputes. USA vs. Britain and Native American alliance.
1898. Theatrical poster.
Advanced understanding of math, time, astronomy, written language. Sophisticated building structures. Population of 1 million. Human sacrifice.
"A palace court scene is depicted on the exterior of this cylindrical vessel" and Mayan art "include(s) representations of the ancient peoples, their costumes, architecture, and activities." Indicative of recorded history, hierarchy, judicial system, organized society.
First ancient Mesoamerican civilization located in modern-day Mexico, theorized to be the "mother culture" from which other cultures in the area developed. Sophisticated building structures and cities; trade; artwork, including giant stone heads; agricultural society based on maize, beans, and squash.
North-east of modern-day Mexico City. 25,000+ inhabitants, whose ethnic origins are uncertain. Large pyramidal structures. Geometric, religious. More than 22 square miles large.
"Toltec Tula, a new settlement c. 70 km north-west of Teotihuacán, was established on a ridge overlooking the juncture of the Tula and Rosas rivers. It grew slowly at first, but by c. AD 950 covered c. 5 sq. km and contained between 15,000 and 20,000 people. Explosive growth during the principal period of occupation, the Tollan phase (c. AD 950–c. 1200), created one of Mesoamerica’s largest cities, with an estimated 35,000 to 40,000 inhabitants. Toltec culture disintegrated shortly after 1150. Crop failures and famines in the arid land, internal conflicts and pressures from northern immigrants in search of new lands all contributed to Tula’s downfall."
Evidence suggests that an internal uprising against the elites may have sparked the downfall of the city: only the elites' homes were burned.
Likely descendants of tribes from modern-day southern US/northern Mexico.
17th cent. Writing, depiction of people (pres. natives) as friendly. Writing.
30 km south-east of Mérida in Yucatán, Mexico. Mayan influence. Contained some 3500 structures within 4 sq. km, about 100 of which were large masonry temples or ceremonial structures. An estimated population of 11,000–12,000. Decline due to infighting.
"The Pride of Columbus", 1866
"Art production consists predominantly of religious works commissioned for convents and churches."
Mexico, 1650, artists unknown. "The painting displayed, the third in the series, depicts Hernando Cortés (1485-1547) meeting the Mexica emperor Montezuma (1480?-1520). The landscape and treatment of indigenous dress serve to romanticize the meeting of these two powerful leaders. Cortés approaches Montezuma with his arms opened in a gesture of embrace, which the Mexica leader respectfully rejects by raising his left hand. Montezuma's idealized body, dignified stance, full beard, and the golden sword in his right hand owe more to European ideas about the appropriate bearing of a king than to ethnographic accuracy. Furthermore, while the feather skirts shown on Montezuma and his court were part of the standard European iconography for depicting "Indians," skirts like this are not known to have been worn anywhere in the Americas."
(Bartholomé de las Casas book)
1531. Note Madonna and Child.
16th century Mexican. European + native art forms: hummingbird feathers and native gold with Christian motif.
Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica.
Standing Figure, 1st century b.c.–1st century a.d.
-Figures made of adobe clay
-By the characteristics of signified by the genitals, the two figures on top are male and the bottom figure is female.
-The female has wide-set hips for child-bearing, but features small arms that blind. These features indicate that the woman is impaired and helpless.
-These figures establish the clear gender roles perceived in the Malagana cultures.
-Mirror frame made of wood (9th-12th century)
-Carving style is influenced by Southern Wari cultures which indicates trade and communication have sustained between the many cultures
-Human like figure is standing on a raft with a war club in hand
-Boat theme in Chimu Art was prevalent which shows that maritime activity was prominent and depended on.
-Pair of Earflares worn by the elite (12th-15th century)
-The central image is of a distinguished Chimú lord wearing an enormous fanned-out headdress and big circular ear flares.
-Highly Stratified labor force/ society
-Warrior elite with the
"Pizarro Seizing the Inca of Peru" John Everett Millais, 1846
-John Everett Millais was an English painter from the Romantic Era.
-A piece completed 300 years, romantically depicts Pizarro seizing the Incan Emperor, Atahualpa
-Pizarro is glorified as a savior, justified by divine right of Christianity signified by the cross held by a priest behind him.
-The Seizure of Atahualpa at Cajamarca
- Published between 1760 and 1810
- Both depictions are produced by European artists 200 to 300 years after the event.
- These European artists clearly have positive sentiments which justify the Seizure of Atahualpa. The painting rarely show any bloodshed, only seizure and subordination.
-Cuzco school was a group of European and indigenous painters active in Cuzco, Peru, from the 16th through the 18th century.
- Juan Iñigo de Loyola, one of the first members and Spanish painters who arrived in 1545, trained indigenous artists in the style of Spanish
Lands comprising modern Ecuador, Colombia, Panama, and Venezuela
-Calvary Scene (18th Century)
-Although carved in a larger scale, this Crucifixion scene features figures whose garments display the same style of polychromy as the smaller Nativity scenes nearby. The broad swaths of background color derive their glow from the layer of silver leaf underlying the colored glazes, evidence of a technique called achinado. The carving of the figures' heads and faces closely resembles the work of the best known Quiteño sculptor, the mestizo Manuel Chil, called Caspicara.
(Lands comprising modern Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Bolivia separated from Viceroyalty of Peru)
-Painted by Incan native who adapted European portrait style techniques.
-However paintings such as these were merely illustrations that were imagined in the minds of the Incans. They did not serve the purpose of documentation.
-They were revered by the remaining Incan royalty.
-Dominated by European painting technique, signifies the compromise and loss of Incan culture
-Woman's shoulder mantle, Peru, 16th - 17th century. Cotton, silk, metallic yarns.
-Made of Cumbi, a type of cloth that was highly valued, woven by specialists, and used for the garments of the king.
-Symbolic of intercontinental trade, made of : Spanish silver threads with the Chinese silk (only available through trade from Philippines to Lima)
-Material: Silver gilt, enamel
-The inscription indicates that this monstrance was made for Pedro de Urraca, a Spanish-born Mercedarian friar who spent most of his life in Ecuador and Peru, where he was revered for the holiness of his ministry.
-Frieze Fragment (18th century)
-Commercial and industrial development exacerbates class division.
-Upper-class Latin Americans receive Arts education abroad in Italy and France.
-Influence from impressionist styles of art from France are evident in Argentinian art
-The period between 1810 and 1816 in the New Kingdom of Granada (today Colombia) was marked by such intense conflicts over the nature of the new government or governments that it became known as la Patria Boba (the Foolish Fatherland)
-Sovereignty from Spain
-Diminishing power of the Catholic Church
-Reign of terror
Flag of Cartagena and Barranquilla
Flag of the United Provinces
-Being With 1946
-Matta received arts education in Paris and worked for the modernist architect Le Corbusier
Panorama of Machu Picchu 1930s
-Martín Chambi (Peruvian Artist)
-Dancers of Colombia 1980
-Fernando Botero (Colombian Artist)
-Studied art in Florence, Italy
-Inspired by Goya and Picasso