Untitled timeline




one DEPENDENT on the US


1951 - 1954


US Presidents

Harry Truman (Acheson)

1945 - 1953

Truman and Stalin depart power in the same year a few months apart causing uncertainty because they had ruled the globe since the end of WWII

Truman left undeniable legacy in the realm of foreign policy
Underlying objective – containment of the Soviet expansion
Wherever the SU probed pr was thought to probe Western intention , American diplomatic/economic/military power had been exercised to prevent pro-communism and preserve pro-western inclinations
 Iran
 Turkey
 Greece
 West Berlin
 South Korea

Under American inspiration, a Europe on the brink of economic collapse and vulnerable to Soviet military pressure made strides toward economic recovery

Dwight D Eisenhower (Dulles)

1953 - 1961

John F. Kennedy

1961 - 1963

3 Declarations of Cold War

Stalin's Election Speech

August 6, 1945

Stalin painted the contrast between capitalism and communism- reasserts MArxist Leninist thought

blamed WWII on the development of world capitalism - because capitalist countries do not develop at the same rate this turns to aggression as they try to stabilize their markets and trade in a constant state of competition

the west saw this clear attack as a wage of cold war against capitalism

Churchill's Iron Curtain Speech

March 5, 1946

is seen as alerting the world to a Soviet threat and calling to cintue ANglo-American cooperation against a SU he characterized as expansionist

iron curtain references the barrier put by Moscow between the Western European states and the E.E. states

Truman Doctrine

March 12, 1947

After the 3 theaters od conflict, US is basically agreeing to supplant outgoing GB as guaranteer of aid


largely inspired by Kennan's article which argues there can be no peaceful coexistence with USSR

US Policy toward Containment

Turkish Straits Crisis

1945 - 1946

USSR presents Turkey with a list of demands that greatly imposes on sovereignty- includes establishing bases on the straits and a joint-Turkish Soviet jurisdiction

USSR demands this under the guise that Turkey is not strong enough to prevent aggressor states from reaching USSR through the waterway

From Stalin's POV- defensing self interest
From US point of view: trying to break through to control Eastern MEditerranean and a vital commercial waterway

US backed Turkish regime and Soviets backed off once they saw US sent a naval fleet and because they knew of their monopoly on atomic weapons

Iranian Crisis

November 1945 - December 1946

viewed as Kremlin's renewal of traditional russian expansionism - Iran ends up becoming close ally of the US (first direct confrontation between US and USSR)

stemmed from the Soviet Union's refusal to relinquish occupied Iranian territory that they had been jointly occupying with GB and their fueling of insurgency in North in Azerbaijan

It solidified America’s determination to resist the expansion of USSR influence throughout Eurasia

Greek Civil War

March 30 1946 - October 16 1949

between the Greek government army—backed by the United Kingdom and the United States—and the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE), the military branch of the Greek Communist Party

Britain wanted to intervene to assure that a pro-British and pro-Western government would uphold

Stalin himself was weary of helping out the Greek communists:
• Did not favor establishing an indigenous partisan Communist state who was not controlled by Moscow
 At the same time he was refusing support for Tito in Yugoslavia and Mao in China
• Convinced that Communist takeover in a country in Western sphere of influence would provoke sharp reaction

BEcause of their dire economic situation at home Gb tell US they will have to withdraw aid form Greece and Turley- present US with chance to fill Gb void of power or to allow Communism to possibly seep through

The aid is needed to avoid economic collapse of these countries and the conditions - poverty, etc- that would cause Communism to take root in Western Europe.

George Kennan- "Sources of Soviet Conduct"

January 1947

Developed in the midst of the Greek Civil War, which basically states that the Soviet Union can b expected to probe into weak points beyonds its borders to extend its power

and the way to fact would be to contain expansion by strengthening political/social/economic institutions of countries that were susceptible to communism

influenced the truman doctrine which stated it would now be US policy to aid those countries threatened by communism and later the MArshall plan which would help rebuild war-torn Europe and avoid economic collapse where communism could ferment

The Marshall Plan

June 5, 1947


Marshall plan contributes to the division in Europe because only the western countries are receiving aid because Soviets refuse for themselves and client states to participate

string attached:

o US insisted on access to internal budgets
• Denounced by Moscow as infringing on sovereignty and it would never allow American financial officials to adjust its budgetary policies to Washington’s spending priorities
• (Kremlin was also trying to conceal how vulnerable postwar USSR economy was)
o Plan insisted most of aid be spent on American exports
• Soviets interpreted this as efforts to save the collapse of capitalism that Lenin had predicted and US was trying to save it by obtaining market sin the shattered European economies and establishing commercial domination



Cominform Founded

October 15, 1947

Trying to ensure subservience of Communist states to Moscow

NATO Alliance

April 4 1949

US looking for a policy/ concrete way of cementing their commitment to defense of Western Europe -so it signed this regional security agreement

controversy was that it seemed to render UN useless but there was an article allowing for regional organizations so it was justified

NATO though was not formed form some shared beliefs or longstanding alliances but by a fear of soviet aggression - fear that had been aggravated following the Berlin Blockade

The determination to resist Soviet aggression with American assistance, namely their monopoly in nuclear bombs

Acheson- American Defense Perimeter in Asia

Jan 12 1950

Left out Korea from defense perimeter which then misled Stalin to assume US would not interfere in Korean affairs- led him to give green light to Kim Il Sung to intervene and eventually cause full on Korean War


Feb 20 1950 - 1956

characterized by heightened fears of communist influence on American institutions and espionage by Soviet agents

NSC-68 Revises US Policy

April 7 1950

contextL folowing Berlin Blockade, US has just "lost" China, testing of first soviet atomic bomb

argues that SU was stronger than Kennan argued and that the great was military and immediate - ordered by Truman after the Soviets explode firs atomic bomb

characterize SU as innately expansionist and aggressive

called on US to rearm even though it was peacetime - call for buildup and projection of American military power abroad

Soon after, the Korean War rusted and this led to the militarization of the containment policy - Korea was the push that Truman needed to increase military spending and power abroad

NSC-68 and the simultaneous outbreak of war in Korea lead to the MILITARIZATION OF CONTAINMENT

5 years after the policy of containment is announced, you have a radical shift from focusing on promo tic economic recover and political stability into projection of AMericna military power

US takes control of NATO, supplies arms to its allies, stations ground forces

Dulles - "Massive Retaliation

January 12 1954

Truman's Containment Policy was not working because it relied too much on military and was too expensive, reactionary in nature

So Eisenhower ordered reevaluation - shifted emphasis to NUCLEAR DETERRENT

Eisenhower Doctrine

January 5 1957

Truman Doctrine focused on "containment" in Western Europe, Eieenwhoer Doctrine sought to contain Arab nationalism in Middle East- concentration in the middle east

Afer Suezm Eisenhower anticipated more communist pressure on Arab States and assured nations threatened by communist subversion that US would provide economic and military aid (subtle blow at Nasser)

created AMerican commitment to Middle Eastern stability

developing economic strength to retain independence, authorize military assistance an cooperation, employ US armed forces to secure and protect independence and territorial integrity of any nation that would ask for aid under threat from INTERNATIONAL COMMUNISM

Soviet Policy

Prelude to Berlin Blockade- Western Zones Introduce Currency


When currency is introduced, Stalin sees immediate threat - because currency is sign of a sovereign state - and Stalin is afraid of this being the stronger currency and sucking in Eastern Germany into its capitalism

So initiates Berlin Blockade as direct response to currency introduction


February 1948

The shock with which the West greeted the event—which bore distinct echoes of Munich—helped spur quick adoption of the Marshall Plan, the creation of a state in West Germany, vigorous measures to keep Communists out of power in France and especially Italy, and steps toward mutual security that would, in little over a year, result in the establishment of NATO and the definitive drawing of the Iron Curtain until the Fall of Communism in 1989.

Communist PArty which was part of the coalition government is going to take office and the foreign ministers- a symbol of CZ democracy is murdered- effectively leaving control in Communist hands

This coup represents formal break in relations (b/c up until hen it had been a democratic government)- CZ in now behind the iron curtain

Yugoslavia expelled form Cominform

June 18, 1948

Tito led country against Nazi's without Moscow support and later refused to let Stalin exploit natural resources for USSR's benefit

Wanted to enhance Yugoslav power and Stalin was annoyed with Tito's independent communist movement not under Moscow Rule

Stalin organized boycott but this backfired because then Tito used the estrangement from the USSR to attain US aid via the Marshall Plan, as well as to found the Non-Aligned Movement, in which Yugoslavia was a leading force

Berlin Blockade

June 24 1948 - May 12 1949

USSR seeks to draw out powers from Berlin which is in the Soviet Zone

But US responds to threat by initiating airlift to drop supplies to Berlin Residents

Is seen as a success for the Truman administration because they remained steadfast and USSR backs off

Berlin blockade accelerated progressive involvement of US in defense of Western Europe that had started with the Truman Doctrine and containment policy

Officially divided Germany into two zones, each dependent on one superpower

West Germany is Established

May 1949

Change in foreign policy because it is announced West Germany will receive Marshall Plan aid, and this is acknowledging that the recovery of W. Germany is needed to contribute to the recovery of Europe as a whole

West German Republic- now sovereign with its own Chancellor
(Eastern part is German Democratic Republic)

division of Germany was never intended but it followed the Berlin Blockade

By the end of the 1950’s not only has west German achieved its pre-war economic records of GDP, but it has SURPASSED them

so there is a contrast to Europe b/c W. Germany is experiencing the "economic miracle" while East Germany is lagging behind

Russians explode 1st Atomic Bomb

August 1949

By late 1949 it looks like USSR is winning Cold War

China had just been lost to communism and now bomb

European Coal and Steel Community Formed

April 18 1951

The earlier integrationist hope of EDC now run over, France clung to the ECSC as economic integration as a prelude to political integration

o Two purposes of ECSC:
• Gradual elimination of all legal restrictions on trade, capital movements, labor migration within community
• Establishing a common external tariff to protect member states from foreing competition during transitional stag leading to creation of genuine free trade zone

GB refused to sign wary that it would undermine their "Special relationship" with the US which enabled it to import cheap food and commodities

• The long range goal of political integration was facilitated by creating apparatus of political institutions as well (had a parliament and council of ministers)

wwas planting the seeds for late EU



March 5 1953

Brussels Pact Enlarged

October 1954

Brussels Pact Enlarged to include West Germany after France refused to sign European Defense Community

France's hesitation threatened the Atlantic Alliance and threatened to stall rearming West Germany - but under this they were given right to rearm as long as they did not manufacture atomic, biological or chemical weapons

European Defense Community Treaty Signed edit - goto - delete
effectively led to German rearmament because before signing treaty, 3 western powers took measures to restore POLITICAL SOVEREINGTY TO THE WEST GERMAN REPUBLIC AND CONCLUDE THE MILITARY OCCUPATION

From the ashes fo the EDC emerged a reinvigorated Western Alliance system of which rearmed West Germany had become a member of equal basis

West Germany Admitted into NATO

May 9 1955

10 years after Nazi surrender, West Germany is rearmed

SU forms Warsaw Pact as direct response to inclusion in NATO


MAY 14 1955

Emerged as a direct response to West Germany's rearmament and inclusion in the Brussels Pact -1954

Khrushchev's Secret Speech

February 25 1956

Basically laid out that there was no winner in a nuclear war
Even if there was a “winner” there would be mass devastation
Says the old leninst and stalnist concept that war is inevitable between communism and capitalism must be amended

He insists that communism will ultimately end up victorious but not by force instead accept fact that there must be coexistence even if capitalism is doomed

Also expands on idea of Polycentrism
Idea that iniidual Communist parties throughout world were free to pursue separate paths independent of Moscow (Diplomatic relations with Tito's yugoslavia are even renewed)

exposed and condemned the crimes of the Stalin era - and denounced dictator

speech would not remain secret for long and it helped trigger anti-soviet sentiment in Poland and Hungary later in 1956 (especially since most of E.E leaders had been placed there by Stalin)

Polish Rebellion

June 1956 - October 1956

outbreak of social protest by workers looking for better economic conditions turns into nationwide expression fo resistnace to SU – POLISH OCTOBER

Wladyslaw Gomulka- symbol of nationalist Communism rejoined Polish Communist Party – signified advent of national communism in Poland

Krush saw that Gomulka's reinstatement to power could cause war between two Soviet neighbors, so he decided to back down when Gomulka reaffirmed loyalty to Soviet Bloc - allowed it to retain relative independence and dissuade Kremlin form using military force

Hungarian Rebellion

October 30 1956 - November 4 1956

New Hungarian Prime Minister (liberal Communist) Imre Nagy formed colition gov that included non communist elemnts

Then announced intention to conduct free elections that threatened to end monopolistic position of communist Party

Kremlin was willing to withdraw forces and it looked that , like Poland, Hungary would be granted relative independence, until Nagy caved to calls for genuine independence form SU and announced intention to withdraw form Warsaw Pact and declare neutrality.

The Soviets thought a neutral Hungary could collapse the buffer zone between East and West so on Nov SU returned to Hungary to set up puppet regime

"Thaw" in East West Relations

"Thaw" in East-West Relations (USSR DOMESTIC RELATIONS)

1953 - 1956

Post-Stalinist gov considering domestic politics over int’l affairs during secession struggle of 1953-1957

Nikita Khrushchev obtained Title First Secretary of the Communist Party in June 1957 (top leadership post)

Death of Stalin caused emergence of public opinion and unstable domestic political environment as the people clamored to be free form Stalinist repression

Armistice in Korea

July 27 1953

• US had intervened in Korean War though the Un and the Chinese had intervened on N. Korea’s side
• Neither side gained any ground but they both refuse to agree to UN (read: AMerican) demands
• Hung up on repatriation of POW’s
• But after Staln’s death reach agreement and sign armistice- though war technically was not over because no peace treaty was singed

Armistice in Indochina (Geneva Conference)

July 1954

• Geneva talks began after the fall of Din Bien Phu with US hoping to reach settlement that preserved non-communist character of Indochina (with or without French presence)

• Ho Chi Minh about to achieve military victory against French and it seems to be a matter of time before Communists get hold of Vietnam
• Peace conference is held in Geneva where post-stalnist leadership pressures ally Ho Chi Minh to agree to a compromise
 Meant partition of a northern section and a southern section to then hold elections supervised by UN which would lead to unification

attempt to find a way to unify Vietnam and discuss the possibility of restoring peace in Indochina.
These agreements separated Vietnam into two zones, a northern zone to be governed by the Viet Minh, and a southern zone to be governed by the State of Vietnam

PArt of the "thaw" in EAst WEst relations because SOviet and Chinese delegates are the one trying to convince Ho to accept the temporary partition of VIetnam - they want to improve relations

Geneva Conference


First postwar conference with Soviet and US heads of State

Discussed open skies proposal and sharing blueprints of military installations
though eventually both sides ended up rejecting the idea, US wary of having no provisions for inspection and SU reluctant to showcase their secretive military planning

Austrian State Treaty

May 1955

stipulated removal of all Allied and Soviet occupation from Austria
condition that Austria observe strict neutrality between 2 blocs

Nikita Khrushchev Becomes First Secretary of Communist PArty

June 1957

This was the top post in SU

Followed the secessionist struggle of 1953-1957

European happenings

Bretton-Woods System Established

July 1944

Liberal Capitalist Economic Order

Establishes the GATT and the IMF
promotes internnational trade, investment

Hiroshima and Nagasaki Bombings

August 6 1945 - August 9 1945

The Treaty of Brussels

March 17, 1948

CZ coup helped expedite creation of anti-soviet military alliance in Western Europe

signatories were Benelux, Britain and France - mutual consultation and cooperation in event of aggression

SEATO Alliance

September 8 1954

Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty

Dulles wanted this to be a NATO counterpart in Southeast Asia

but most embers were not even part of SE Asia and some countries that needed the most protection- Burma, LAos, Cambodia, were left out

tying to deter future communist aggression with Am
erican involvement

Asian happenings

Ho Founds the Vietminh


Vietminh = coalition of nationalist groups led by Communist party that spearheaded resistance to Japanese occupation

Indochinese War

1946 - 1954

After Japanese surrender, declared independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, establishing capital in Hanoi
but GB, accepting Japanese surrender rin souther portion of Vietnam allowed Frnech forces to return

Ho tried to negotiate indeendece but France was unwilling to relinquish sovereignty. Escalated into full fledged war of national liberation where Vietminh took to the countryside in guerilla warfare

Communist victory in China 1949 left impression of a coordinated Communist advance in Asia all under Moscow’s power (conspiracy) (and Vietnam shares a border with China )

In the 1940's Roosevelt had originally opposed the restoration of French colonial power, but once Ho was Recognized by both Moscow and Beijing Truman backed the French and recognized their puppet regime in Indochina- US also end up paying for 80% of French effort

In Washingotn's mind this is not a colonial war, this is a part of the Cold War because they think Vietnma will ultimately end up being the puppet of Russia just as China will and Communism will become dominant in Asia

Temporary partition at Geneva 1954

Chinese Civil War - Mao vs Kai-Shek

1946 - 1949

disaster for Turman administration hat head been supporting the Nationalists under Chiang Kai-Shek

Berlin Blockade was happening so officials determined Western Europe must be priority and it would not undertake ea military intervention

Mao winning Civil War ended possibility of Western hegemony in East Asia - filling power vacuum left by Japan

o Under Gen. Macarthur, US undertook military occupation of Japan and allowed allies (British, French, Dutch) to return to their posts of colonial authority
• Allies either rasserted their authorit OR granted independence BUT TO SUCCESSOR REGIMES CONTORLLED BY NON-COMMUNIST PRO-WESTERN ELITES
• Either way, East Asia was under Western control, UNTL CHINA CAME ALONG

China was then as counterpart to satellite Soviet empire in Eastern Europe - US officials ignoring that Chinese Communism was INDIGENOUS with minimal ties to the SU
Relationship between China and SU was originally strained because Stalin was trying to play off the Communist and Nationalist forces in order to avoid a unified China (did not want an independent competing force that was a legitimate threat - 3x the population )

Ideological differences between Mao Communism and Stalin Communism
Mao depended on the peasantry for revolution (China was pre-industrial), whereas Lenin largely dismissed the peasantry and relied on the working class for revolution

US In Japan and Taiwan

1949 - 1953

Truman reversed stern policy on Japan when he saw that a military weak Japan was vulnerable to Soviet interference when US withdrew

1948-1949 : sought to remove restrictions on economic recovery to give financial assistance to promote growth and social stability

Korean War helped advance Japan from enemy to prosperous ally by demonstrating its value as a counterweight to Soviet and Communist Chinese power

During Korean war, US also resumed aid to Taiwan- what they officially recognized as Republic of China

They kept UN seat reserved for Nationalist gov . Eisenhower signed mutual defense treaty and forbade trade with mainland china. The land that had once been a source of American markets and missionaries was now gone from public consciousness

Dean Acheson (SoS) "White Paper" on China

July 30 1949

sought to explain the events in China and to justify approach


October 1 1949

Nationalist Forces Flee to Taiwan

January 1950

1950 Nationalist forces are driven off the Mainland and they flee to Taiwan/Formosa but Truman cuts off all aid under charges of corruption, which means that US WILL DO NOTHING to prevent new regime on the mainland

Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance

Feb 14 1950

Mao inherited a ruined economy that needed abroad aid to recover

Once it becomes clear the tMao is the victor, stalin extends offer of economic assistance and military protection in exchange for naval and economic privileges and assurance of a friendly border nation.

Soviet- Chinese Treaty of Alliance

February 14 1950

Tensions between Beijing and Moscow were strained because Stalin knew they did not intend to be a puppet regime and Moscow had maintained ties with Nationalist government before

The Korean War

June 25 1950 - July 27 1953

Ways in which postwar Korea resembled Germany:
o Temporary partition into Sovet and American zone
• Failure to reach agreement on reunification
 Established gov in respective zones that claimed sovereignty over entire country


Two superpowers left Korea much easier than they did Germany but they left it in boiling political instability
Two separate governments – each armed and supplied by the two main powers in cold War, each claiming authority over all territory

June 25, N Korea attack the South, thinking it will be a quick war to unify the country, especially since they are not anticipating US intervention judging after Acheson's speech excluding S Korea form Asian Perimeter of Defense.

UN Security Council was able to adopt America sponsored resolution (because SU was boycotting and not able to veto) that required member states to PROVIDE S. KOREA WITH AID TO REPEAL AGRESSOR

This justified US sending troops stationed in Japan over to help a South Korean army that was collapsing- under Gen. Macarthur

US intervention came because Truman saw it as a test of Western resolve (just like in Europe that had prompted containment)

Stalin had also given Sung the green light to attack because he thought it would be a quick and decisive vicotory over a weak Korea Did not expect US to intervene because of Secretary of State’s Dean Acheson speech that explicitly excluded South Korea from America’s “military defense perimeter” in Far East

McArthur pushed back past the 38th parallel but China fulfilled threat of becoming involved

Stalemate: choose to continue prolonged ground war or bomb China but then risk world war (China’s mutual defense alliance with Soviet Union)

provided for a demilitarized zone along frontier


Korean war also prompted the question of West German rearmament because it contained major industrial power nd was a valuable economic asset

the solution was proposed by France- Schuman Plan
seeds of economic integration that would flourish during later 1950's - started to a boyish trade obstacle

From Partnership to Rivalry in Sino-Soviet Relations

1958 - 1962

BEijing had always been unhappy with the strings attached to Soviet aid about complete subservience to Moscow

Growing ideological dispute between Moscow and Beijing furing 1950’s - Mao was convinced of the inevitability of war with the capitalist powers while - Krush was fearful of the consequences of a nuclear exchange and was pursuing peaceful coexistence

Beijing growing suspociuos that Moscow was attempting to maintain peaceful coexistence with West at China’s expense

Deterioration of relations emphasized by
Bay of Pigs (China critical about Soviet's withdrawal)
Indio-Sino Hostilities (China bitter than SU was aiding its enemy as it tried to gain a foothold with the non aligned countries)



The Middle East

Bargain with the British


The British were one the the three blocks hindering NAsser's dream of Pan-Arabism

British will evacuate military base and the canal zone
Egypt guarantees freedom of navigation in the waterway and will allow GB to intervene if canal zone is ever under attack

First Arab Israeli War

1948 - 1949

Israel fighting multi-front war against Saudi Arabia, Syria, Lebanon, Egypt

Disunity of attacker states leads Israel to be enlarged after military gains

Also begins Palestinian exodus- Over 50% of the Arab population of the territory of the new Jewish state flee in 1948-1949

Establishment of the State of Israel (British Withdraw)

May 15 1948

This comes after decades of Jewish people trying to find a home

Britain a quires mandate of Palestine after Ottoman Empire disintegrates following WWI

1917- Balfour Declaration - vague promise of a "home" rather than homeland or state- immigration begins to Palestine

1937- Peel Commission (idea to partition into two states)

1939- White Paper (idea to keep one state with limited jewish immigration)

1948- British withdraw and hostilities begin immediately in the region - Israel is surrounded on all side by hostile forces

Naguib and Nasser Overthrow Egyptian Monarchy


Prelude to Suez Crisis


US, GB and World Bank agree to help finance Nasser's project of the Aswan Dam that would serve as irrigation and hydro-electric power

In its competition with the USSR, the Eisenhower administration is looking to foster relationships

Bu late rin 1956 they back down from their original deal because ISrael has been growing ties with communist bloc and because of his strong anti-Israel position (a definite US ally)
Nasser recognizes Mao's China - instead of the Nationalist Taiwanese government US is currently recognizing as he head of China
Nasser signs arms deal with CZ
Nasser sees ISrael as major hindrance to his pan-arab dream

Nasser Takes Power in Egypt

June 23 1956

Nasser leads Egyptian Revolution of 1952 which overthrows the monarchy- now he is intent on developing Egypt into a modern state

He has to main goals
short term:promotion of crash program of economic and military development to replace outgoing Anglo-French power

long term: promotion of Pan-Arabism and a united Arab people's under his own rule

3 main political forces the thundered his rule:
Nasser funded the insurgents that were fighting against the "French Algerians" that were keeping the Arab major ity disenfranchised in the civil war, GIVING HIM PRESTIGE AS THE CHAMPION OF ARAB LIBERATION FROM COLONIAL RULE
o Proponenets of Pan Arabism saw a state dominated by people of European descent in the hear of the arab world that signified return to colonial past and stood in the way of Arab unity

Nasser learned how to play off both superpowers against each other for his own benefit to Egypt

The Suez Crisis

October 29 1956 - November 7 1956

US withdraws previously promised aid to Egypt’s Aswan Dam because f his dependence on military assistance from USSR and because of his anti-Israel sentiment

6 days later he announced he would nationalize the Canal and use the revenue to towards the costs of building the Dam
(the bulk of European trade and Middle Eastern oil shipments passed through Canal)

GB PM (Anthony Eden) sought to topple Nasser by force and without consulting US first went to Paris and Tel Aviv officials to team up

October 29- Israeli army attacks Egypt

October 31

British and French troops land in Suez under pretense of separating the Israeli and Egypt armies and to protect the canal for int’l clients
Real intentions:
• Replace Nasser regime with someone who would not intervene with BRtisih interests
• Retain colonial authority in Algeria and stop Nasser form suppoting insurgents
• Find security along its western frontier

Eisenhower (running for reelection on basis of peace) is resentful that the powers did not consult him and that they acted despite his insistence on not interfering – he did not want to be seen as a enabler of imperialism

Through economic and political diplomatic pressure, he pressured the stats to reateat, dealing an embarrassing low to the Alliance and ultimately reverting their original goal- instead of toppling Nsser or leaving him weak, the Suez events seemed like a victory for him and his prestige as an Arab liberator grew

Other Long Range Consequences of Suez:

o End of Anglo-French pretensions of imperial rule
o Undermined political cohesion of the Atlantic alliance b/c it was now apparent Europeans ahd to follow foreing policy with Washignton’s blessing
o Bolstered prestige of Nasser in the Arab world and solidified his reputation as spokesman for DEVELOPING NATIONS IN HEIR STRUGGLE TO ERADICATE WHAT WAS LEFT OF COLONIALISM
o SU acquired reputation as champion of Arab aspirations at the expense of Western Powers and Israel


Iraq Becomes a "Republic"


Under the monarchy of Iraq, it was the most pro-British state in the Middle East but July 1958 coup killed the King and the entire royal family

Leader of the military revolt - Abdul Karim Kassem- is going to be seen as the Nasser of Iraq

Western powers worry about whether he will align with Nasser and the spread of Nasserism

Latin America

Batista in Power - Cuba

1933 - 1959

Sergeant Fulgencio Batista governed wither directly or through subordinates and he represented the interests of the oligarchy that rule the sugar plantations

Under Batista, US have retained the right to intervene in Cuba and the base in Guantanamo Bay

But near the end of his rule, US-Cuban alliance is becoming embarrassing due to his blatant corruption and dictatorship rule -and alliance with a pro-democracy county

So US initially have warm response to Castro, because win the beginning he had no evidence that he was motivated by Marxism or any Communist links until he meets Che Guevara in 1955, who by now is strongly indoctrinated into MArxism - (especially after witnessing the CIA sponsored coup of Jacobo Arbenz Guzman in Guatemala 1954)

Move Toward Hemispheric Solidarity

1940 - 1945

During the course of WWII, and due to the common enemy of Germany, LA aligns itself closely with the US, a departure from its previous efforts to achieve independence and deny the right of the US to intervene

LA also provided a lot of strategic raw materials that contribute dot the war effort for the US

Dictator Ubico Ousted in Nicaragua


Jorge Ubico is ousted by a military coup of junior officers that are popular with the people because they pledge to diffuse the system that benefits the oligarchy and dismisses the poor

Not much attention being paid because eat this time, D-Day landings in Europe and the war is reaching an end

Chapultepec Conference


All LA states convene (without US) to forge a treaty of regional security to repel against aggression to a LAtin AMerican state either form external powers or from another LA state - InterAmerican Reciprocal Assistance and Solidarity Act

Juan Jose Arevalo in Power

1945 - 1951

Institues mild social reforms and a progressive constitution, but the bulk of chance happens with his successor, Jacobo Arbenz Guzman

Rio Pact


Solidifies the agreements made at Chapultepec with the Rio Pact and makes them more specific - concludes with a mututal security pact

this pact is significant because it is the first one made under Article 51 after the creation of the UN

sort of contradictory to make a regional security pact with the formation of the UN, but article 51 provides a clause that allows countries in a particular region to sign exclusive understandings bypassing the UN

The creation of the Rio Pact is going to lay the groundwork for the forthcoming regional security organizations like NATO, SEATO, Warsaw Pact etc

Organization of American States

April 30, 1948

Institutionalizes the regional security pact at Rio that includes all 21 LA republics

Jacobo Arbenz Guzman in Power

1952 - 1954

Guzman is going to instate radical changes, especially concerning the redistribution of land

1951 will institute land reform act that wil l allow government to expropriate land and distribute to the peasantry

opposition is raised by two main groups:
the small land owning elite
and the United Fruit Company of Boston who has investments in Guatemala- they have constructed the ports and railroads that allow them to cultivate and ship bananas

The Banana War

1953 - 1954

Jacobo Arebenz Guzman expropriates uncultivated land and will reimburse the landowners based not its taxable worth

Except that a lot of landowners including the United Fruit Company of Boston have under declared the value of their land in order to pay less taxes, and therefore they get reimbursed for less the what their land is actually worth

1953- United Fruit Company of Boston pressures the US to complain to Arbenz that the land was undervalued

This encourages Dulles to look at the Guatemala case and declares that Guatemala is an agent of the Soviet Union (land distribution is socialism)

Guatemala and Soviet Ties


Arbenz Guzman becomes wary that US and Nicaragua wants to overthrow him so he branches out to USSR to ask for arms and is granted them by CZ

When arm shipments arrive, US points to this as evidence to Organization of American States

When the OAS doesn't take any real action, the US decide to take matters into their own hands and plan to oust Jacobo Arbenz Guzman through covert operations

Coup of Guzman by CIA and Castillo Armas


Washignotn selects Colonel Castillo Armas to lead a rebel army trained and equipped by the Cia form Nicaragua into guatemala and lead the coup to overthrow Jacobo Arbenz Guzman

Castillo Armas takes power and Arbenz is exiled- Civil liberties are now curtailed, Arbenz supporters are arrested and lands are restored to the United Fruit Company

This resumes rampant Anti-US sentiment, evident by the respond to Nizon's Goodwill Tour in 1958

Also influences young revolutionary Che Guevara who will later play an integral part in influencing Castro in Cuba

Castro Takes Power


US-Cuba relation deteriorate between 1958-1959

Castro takes steps to nationalize land, just as Arbenz did in Guatemala 1952

this includes billions of dollars worth of land, including many US business and properties

Eisenhower is about to depart from office but he retaliates with economic sanctions and embargo

So US are now going to ensure tense relationships with a country that had historically ben subservient to the US and had been the one most politically,economically and militarily linked to it

In 1960, Cuba will become even more f a threat as they establishh close relations with Moscow - USSR seizes chance to expand in Western Hemisphere. Russia purchases part of sugar production that US had given up and provide low interest loans along with arms

Shows that economic sanctions were doomed to fail