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Ponce de Leon voyage to Florida

1513 - 1601

According to the "500TH Florida Discovery Council Round Table", on March 3, 1513, Juan Ponce de Leon, He reached the island of La Florida in April 2, 1513

Narvaez expidition to Florida

1527 - April 12, 1528

The five remaining ships were lost while looking for the harbor of Tampa Bay. Narvaez landed with 300 hundred men including him, When he had talked about returning to Florida he never heard from his crew again.

Alvar Nunez Cabeza de vacas journey

1528 - 1536

The expedition fleet stopped for 45 days at the island of Santa Domingo to take on supplies. More than 140 members of the expedition deserted there to settle on that island. The next stop was Cuba where two of the five ships and sixty men were lost in a hurricane. Pánfilo Narvaez purchased additional ships and secured additional men and horses, but the size of the expedition was down to four hundred compared to the six hundred it started with. Upon leaving Cuba the ships were caught in a severe storm that drove them toward Florida. The diminished expedition arrived in Florida near what is now called Tampa Bay.

Fray Marcos de Niza and the 7 cities of Cibola

1531 - 1541

He had went to America in 1531, in 1537 he had established in Mexico City. Fray Marcos left Culiacán in March 1539, crossed south-eastern Arizona, penetrated to the Zuni or the Seven Cities of Cibola, and in September returned to Culiacán.

Francisco Vasquez de Coronado exploration

1539 - April, 1542

Coronado traveled north on one side or the other of today's Arizona-New Mexico state line, and from the headwaters of the Little Colorado he continued on until he came to the Zuni River. He followed the Zuni until he found the region inhabited by the Zunis. The members of the expedition were almost starving and demanded entrance into the village of Hawikuh, which the Zuni spell as Hawikku. The natives refused, denying the expedition entrance to the village. Coronado and his expeditionaries attacked the Zunis. The ensuing skirmish constituted the extent of what can be called the Spanish "Conquest of Cíbola." During the battle, Coronado was injured. During the weeks the expedition stayed at Zuni, he sent out several scouting expeditions.

Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo Explorer

April 14,1539 - January 3,1543

In 1540 the fleet sailed from Acajutla, El Salvador, and reached Navidad, Mexico, on Christmas Day.On 27 June 1542, Cabrillo set out from Navidad in New Spain with three ships.On 28 September, he landed in what is now San Diego Bay and named it "San Miguel".Little over a week later he reached Santa Catalina Island October 7, which he named "San Salvador", after his flagship. On 13 November, they sighted and named "Cabo de Pinos" : On 23 November 1542, the little fleet arrived back in "San Salvador". He died on 3 January 1543 and was buried.

Pedro Menedez establishes the oldest city in the United States

1565 - 1619

The first slaves in the territory that we now regard as the United States were brought to St. Augustine on the day it was founded by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés on September 8, 1565. The oldest continually occupied city in the United States is in the state of Florida. Built on the site of an ancient Native American village, and near the place where Ponce de Leon, the European discoverer of Florida, landed in 1513. St. Augustine would also defend the Spanish-claimed land against invasion.

British Pirates attacked Spanish ships

December 13, 1577 - September 26, 1580

In 1572 Drake was equipped with 2 ships and 73 sailors by his cousin Hawkins and associates.Drake began his expedition on December 13th, 1577.He set sail with 3 ships, accompanied by two supply ships.Drake plundered a Spanish war ship and the port of Callo. Drake was the first to pass from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast of South America. Since the Spaniards did not expect to encounter marauders, most ships went unarmed. On March 1st, she was sighted near Esmeraldas, Ecuador. It was midday and Drake did not want to attack before dark, he was afraid that reducing sail would arouse suspicions.The ships separated on March 6. According to an anonymous history of the voyage the English raiders enjoyed a wry comment by a Spanish youth.

juan de Onate settles in New Mexico

September 21,1595 - 1613

King Philip II of Spain awarded Oñate a contract to settle New Mexico, after receiving reports from the Franciscans about their growing missionary work in the area. In July 1598 he established the headquarters of the New Mexico colony near San Juan Pueblo at La Villa de San Gabriel, thus effectively extending the Camino Real by more than 600 miles. On 23 June 1601, Oñate set out onto the Great Plains, to Quiver in search of wealth and an outlet to the sea. In 1613 the Spanish government accused Oñate of several violations including the use of excessive force during the Acoma rebellion, the hanging of two Indians, the execution of mutineers and deserters, and lastly adultery. He died in Spain in 1626.

Santa Fe is founded

1598 - 1912

Santa Fe, New Mexico is the oldest capital city in North America. Don Juan de Onate became the first Governor-General of New Mexico and established the capital in 1598 at San Juan Pueblo. 1607 to 1692 Spanish soldiers and officials, as well as Franciscan missionaries, tried to conquer and convert the Pueblo Indians of the region.1692 to 1821 Santa Fe grew and prospered as a city. Although Spanish authorities and missionaries were under pressure from constant raids by nomadic Indians and often bloody wars with the Comanche.1821 to 1846 Mexico gained its independence from Spain, and Santa Fe became the capital of the province of New Mexico. American trappers and traders moved into the region.1846 to 1912 In the early period of the Mexican American War, an American army general, Stephen Watts Kearny, took Santa Fe and raised the American flag over the Plaza.

Father Kino establishes a Spanish mission at San Xvier in Tucson, Arizona

March 13, 1687 - 1828

Spain established missions throughout New Spain, Beginning in the 16th century. Mission Nuestra Señora de los Dolores founded on March 13, 1687. This was the first mission founded by Father Kino.The San Xavier church and its Indian converts were protected: from Apache raids by the Presidio San Agustin de Tucson, established in 1775. San Xavier is still actively served by Franciscans, and still serves the Native community by which it was built. Not much appears to have been written about the Mission from 1797 to 1828. In 1822, it fell under the jurisdiction of the newly independent Mexican government and the Catholic Diocese of Sonora.

Spanish soldiers, establish a mission settlement at San Antonio

1690 - 1821

Spanish Texas was one of the interior provinces of New Spain from 1690 until 1821. In 1690, Alonso de León escorted several Catholic missionaries to East Texas, where they established the first mission in Texas. When native tribes resisted the Spanish presence, the missionaries returned to Mexico, abandoning Texas for the next two decades.The new town quickly became a target for raids by the Lipan Apache.The raids continued periodically for almost three decades, until in 1749 the Spanish and the Apache made peace. France formally relinquished its claim to Texas in 1762, when French Louisiana was ceded to Spain. In 1799, however, Spain gave Louisiana back to France, and shortly thereafter Napoleon sold the territory to the United States. During the Mexican War of Independence from 1810–1821, The Spanish response was brutal, and by 1820 fewer than 2000 Hispanic citizens remained in Texas. Spain was forced to relinquish its control of New Spain. In 1821, with Texas becoming a province of the newly formed nation of Mexico.

Father Junipero Serra establishes a series of missions throughout California.

November 14, 1730 - 1770

Miguel Joseph Serra was born on November 14, 1730, he entered the Alcantarine Franciscans.That same year he journeyed to North America, first to Mexico City, where he taught. Father Juniper refused to ride the mule that was provided him and walked from Veracruz to the capital. In 1768, Father Serra was appointed superior of a band of 15 Franciscans for the Indian Missions of Baja California. On March 12, 1768, Serra embarked from the Pacific port of San Blas on his way to the California's. Early in the year 1769, he accompanied Governor Gaspar de Portola on his expedition to Alta California. In 1773, difficulties with Pedro Fages, the military commander, compelled Father Serra to travel to Mexico City to argue before Viceroy Antonio Maria de Bucareli y Ursua for the removal of Fages as the Governor of California Nueva. In 1778, Fr. Serra was given dispensation to administer the sacrament of confirmation for the faithful in California.During the American Revolutionary War, Father Serra took up a collection from his mission parishes throughout California. The total money collected amounted to roughly $137, but the money was sent to General George Washington.