The Trojan War was said to be started by the gods and mostly involved the gods throughout the war. Helen was stolen by Paris and King Menelaus, who Helen was married to and also the ruler of Sparta. When Paris took Helen to Troy, King Menelaus declared war on Troy. The war was ended by the Trojan Horse. The Trojan Horse was a large wooden horse that the Greeks built to represent peace to the Trojans. The Greeks were secretly hiding inside of the horse and during the night they attacked the Trojans and won the war.
The Dorians invade Greece and the Mycenaean's empire collapses. The Dorians are unskilled and do not read and write because of this there was no writing at this time. The economy also declines due to this as well. This period of time was called the Dark Ages because they could not write anything down so we do not know any events that happened during this time.
Solon was a reformer who is responsible for the start of Athenian Democracy. He made 4 political reforms, one which outlawed debt slavery. He also made 4 economic reforms, one stated that fathers must teach their son trade.
Persia wanted control the Greek city-states in Anatolia. The Greek city-states revolted against Persia. Athens sent aid to the city-states and that helped them win the war. Persia is then mad at Athens for helping the city states him. Later Persia attacks Athens but Athens defeats them.
Xerxes, who was Darius' son declared war on Athens/Greece. He did this for revenge because his father died of embarrassment from the last war. One very important battle in this war was the battle of Thermopylae. 7000 Greeks, including 300 Spartans, try to stop the Persians. The Spartans fight the Persians for 3 days so the others can go warn the city-states so they can prepare. The Spartans died but they helped Athens win the war.
Socrates was originally a solider in the Peloponnesian War. He then become a philosopher. He believed that we should focus on ourselves because when we improve ourselves we improve society. He taught in the public so everyone could hear his teachings. The government did not like him and charged him with corruption of the youth. He was found guilty and was sentenced to death and died by drinking poison.
Ancient greece valued strong, healthy men and competition. Some of the events in the early Olympics included long distance running, javelin, and wrestling. They were so important that if there was a war going on they would postpone the war to have the Olympics. The athletes had extensive training their whole life. They could win prizes if they won but they never could get paid.
The Peloponnesian War was between Sparta and Athens. Sparta thought Athens was getting too powerful so they declared war. Athens wanted to defend their leadership. Athens wanted to avoid land battles because they had a strong navy and Sparta did the opposite. Sparta also burned all of Athen's food. In the beginning of the war there was a plague in Athens which was an advantage to Sparta because 1/3 of the population was killed and so was their leader, Pericles. In 421 B.C. there is a temporary break in the war. In 415 B.C. Athens attacked the island of Sicily and invades the Greek city-state Syracuse on the island and they fight there for 2 years. In 413 B.C. Sparta beats Athens in Sicily. Then in 404 B.C. Sparta invaded Athens and Athens surrenders. As a result Athens losses a lot of wealth and power but never loses their independence.
Plato was a student of Socrates and he wrote down all of his teachings. He thought there was too many uninformed people in democracy. He focused on more of a collective action then individual unlike Socrates. He wrote a very famous book called "The Republic." His book stated that people are in the position they are in because they deserve it so it is not equal. He also had a formal school called The Academy.
Aristotle is one of the smartest people that have ever lived and he applied his logic with science. He also started a school, The Lyceum, where he taught Alexander the Great. He thought of the scientific method.
The Macedonians slowly invades Greek city-states. They made the peasants soldiers. The results of this was is that it changed government.
Alexander spreads the empire to the East all the way to Persia. Persia does not want to be part of his empire and they are actively against him but he still takes them over. He also took over Egypt and they welcomed him greatly. His legacy was left in Macedonia, Egypt, Greece, and Persia.