Policy Timeline

Oil Spills

Santa Barbara Oil Spill

1969

??? Barrels of oil spilled in Pacific Ocean near Santa Barbara from nearshore oil rig.

Exxon Valdez

1989

??? Barrels of oil spill from the Exxon Valdez tanker ship into the ??? Sound in Alaska.

Legislation

Water Quality Improvement Act (WQIA)

1970

Clean Water Act

1972

Trans-Alaska Pipeline Act

1973

Deepwater Port Act

1974

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

1976

Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amemendments

1978

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)

1980

Oil Pollution Act (OPA)

1990

Penalties

$2.5K/offense/facility or $10K/offense/vessel

1960 - 1970

Failure to Report $10K and/or 1 year prison

1970 - 1977

$10M large vessels, $2M small vessels

1990 - 2000

Liability

Unlimited if gross negligence

1970 - 1978

$100/gross ton or $14M/ vessel, $8M/offshore facility

1970 - 1977

AK $50M/incident $14M/vessel

1973 - 1990

Deepwater Ports $20M/vesel or $50M/port

1974 - 1978

$50M cap, includes rehab

1977 - 1990

$260M/vessel (int'l protocol)

1990 - 2000

Funding

$35M Revolving Fund

1972 - 1978

AK $100M Revolving Fund $0.05 tax on barrel oil

1973 - 1990

$200M Compensation Fund, tax on oil

1978 - 1990

Oil Spill Liability Fund, $0.05/barrel

1990 - 2000

Legal Standard

Gross Negligence

1960 - 1970

Absolute/Strict Liability

1970 - 1978

Joint, several, strict liability

1978 - 2000

Contingency Plan and Self Regulation

1990 - 2000