Malayan Emergency, 1948-60

Counter-insurgency phases

Start of Emergency

June 1948

'Counter-terror' Strategy (Search & Destroy; Mass Sweeps)

June 1948 - April 1950

Briggs Plan (Clear & Hold; Population & Food Control; est of Special Forces)

April 1950 - February 1952

Templer 'Optimisation' ('Hearts & Minds')

February 1952 - May 1954

MacGillivray optimisation of Briggs/Templer (insurgency broken)

May 1954 - July 1958

'Mopping Up'

July 1958 - July 1960

End of Emergency (though renewal 1967-89)

July 1960

Surrender Policy

Amnesty for rank & file who hadn't committed capital crimes

September 1949 - August 1950

Amnesty for all & 'fair treatment' promise; no promise of non-prosecution

August 1950 - September 1955

MCP 'Peace Offensive' Begins

May 1955

Full Amnesty (promise of reintegration or repatriation to China)

September 1955 - July 1956

Failed Baling Peace Talks

December 1955

Full Amnesty (except for 'most brutal' leaders)

July 1956 - September 1957

Merdeka Amnesty (return to Sept '55 terms)

September 1957 - July 1958

Intelligence Reform

Malayan Security Service (MSS)

1945 - August 1948

Security & Intelligence Far East (SIFE)

1946 - 1961

Special Branch within CID

September 1948 - April 1952

Briggs Reforms (est CSDIC; Director of Intelligence (civilian))

April 1950 - November 1951

Jenkin Reforms (failed 'Political Intel Bureau'; SB control of interrogations)

May 1950 - October 1951

Madoc/Morton (SB separate; SB School; full DOI)

May 1952 - 1961

PsyWar Reform

Department of Public Relations & Emergency Publicity Committee

1946 - May 1950

Joint Information & Propaganda Committee (JIPC) (Malaya & Sing.)

February 1950 - August 1957

Department of Information Services (DIS)

June 1950 - August 1952

Greene Reforms - Emergency Information Services (EIS) (DOO Staff)

June 1950 - August 1952

Peterson Reforms - DIS (inc. Operations Section)

September 1952 - March 1954

Psychological Warfare Interrogation Centre (PWIC)

March 1953 - 1961

DIS

April 1954 - 1961

Psychological Warfare Section (PWS) (DOO Staff)

April 1954 - 1961

National & Regional Events of Significance

First Indochina War

December 1946 - August 1954

Start of communist insurgencies (Burma, Philippines, Indonesia)

1948

Calcutta CPI & WFDY/IUS Conferences

February 1948

Chinese Communist Party (CCP) revolution

October 1949

Korean War

June 1950 - July 1953

MCP 'October Resolutions' (less violent alienation; more political subversion)

October 1951

Dien Bien Phu

April 1954

Singapore Anti-National Service Riots

May 1954

Geneva Conference & Agreement on Indochina

July 1954

South East Asia Treaty Organisation (SEATO) formed

September 1954

Singapore Hock Lee Bus Riots & Strikes

April 1955 - May 1955

Singapore first national elections (Labour Front victory)

April 1955

Federation of Malaya first national elections (MCA-UMNO victory)

July 1955

Singapore Chinese Middle School Riots

October 1956

Federation of Malaya independence (Merdeka) - Malaysia from 1962

August 1957

Singapore internal self-gov (PAP election victory)

May 1959