The Changing World

Internal Troubles, External Threats: China, the Ottoman Empire, and Japan


"The Sick Man of Europe"

1750 - 1900

The Ottoman Empire went from being known as "the strong sword of Islam" to being known as "the sick man of Europe". Their power diminished with time and region after region fell under the control of Christian powers.

Tanzimat Reforms in Ottoman Empire

1839 - 1876

Far-reaching reformist measures took shape as leaders tried to gain a strong and newly recentralized state.

Opium War One

1839 - 1842

This was the first war over Opium being traded from Britain to China. The trading of Opium allowed for a huge trade surplus in Britain's favor between the two countries.

Nian Rebellion

1853 - 1868

A rebellion that happened next to where the Taiping Uprising and Boxer Rebellions took place.

Taiping Uprising

1853 - 1863

The culmination of China's internal crisis was known as the Taiping Uprising, which sent the country into turmoil.

Opium War Two

1856 - 1858

A second war brought about by the trading of Opium between Britain and China.

Self-strengthening Movement

1860 - 1880

Policies were set in place in China in order to reinvigorate a traditional China again.

Meiji Restoration in Japan


A decisive turning point in Japan's history was known as the Meiji restoration because the leaders claimed they were restoring power to the new emperor who was named Meiji, or Enlightened Rule.

Young Ottoman Victory in the Ottoman Empire


They won a victory and accepted a constitution and an elected parliament, but it didn't last for long, because of the pressure of war with Russia.

Sultan Abd al-Hamid II

1876 - 1909

This was the leader when the Young Ottomans experienced a short-lived victory, but it didn't last long.

Boxer Rebellion in China (or uprising)

1899 - 1901

It erupted in norther China and was led by militia organizations who called themselves the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists.

Russo-Japanese War

1904 - 1905

Successful wars with Russian and China established Japan as a formidable military competitor in East Asia.

Young Turks Exercised Real Power


A military coup finally allowed the Young Turks to exercise real power. They pushed for many things including Turkish as the official language of the empire.

China (Chinese Revolution)


When the Chinese imperial system collapsed in 1911 under the pressure of foreign imperialism.

Colonial Encounters

Edward Blyden

1832 - 1912

A West African who was born in the West Indies and educated in the U.S. He lated became a well-known scholar and political official in Liberia.

Keshub Chunder Sen: Indian Reformer

1838 - 1884

He hoped to work in tandem with British colonial authorities and expressed his views amongst his own people.

Indian Rebellion

1857 - 1858

The most famous Indian Rebellion. It was triggered by the introduction of a new cartridges smeared with animal fat from cows and pigs. They looked at this as a plot to render them defiled so they would convert to Christianity.

Swami Vivekananda

1863 - 1902

One of most influential 19th century religious figures in India who revived Hinduism.

"Scramble for Africa"

1875 - 1900

This "scramble" pitted half a dozen European powers against one another as they partitioned the entire continent among themselves in only 25 years.

Congo Free State

1900 - 1908

The most infamous cruelties of forced labor occurred in the Congo Free State.

The Imperial Dunbar


The Dunbar was intended to showcase the splendor of the British Empire. An elaborate assembly to mark to coronation of Edward VII.