19th Century Europe

Europe

Serbian Revolution I

1804 - 1813

First Serbian Revolution

Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815

Serbian Revolution II

1815 - 1817

Second Serbian Revolution

Holy Alliance

September 26, 1815

Russia, Prussia, and Austria signed this in Paris. created after ultimate defeat of Napoleon. Was to instill the divine right of kings & Christian principles

Quadruple Alliance

November 20, 1815

Signed in Paris by UK, Prussia, Russia, & Russia. It renewed alliances first agreed upon in 1813 & modified aims of alliance from defeating Bonaparte. France joined in 1818. It became ineffective in the mid 1820s after British distaste at how they handled reactionary issues

1820 Revolutions

1820

Spain, Piedmont, Naples, Portugal, Two Kingdoms of Sicily

1830 Revolutions

1830

France, Belgium, Poland

1848 Revolutions

1848

France, Milan, Prussia, Venetia, Austria (Hungary, Prague, Czechs, Vienna)

Marx's death

1883

Napoleon

Napoleon

1769 - 1821

Napoleon's Russian Campain

1812

Russians defeat Napoleon

April 1814

Russians are in Paris
Treaty of Foutainbleu - Napoleon surrendered (went into exile in Elba)

100 Days

March 20, 1815 - July 8, 1815

Napoleon escaped Elba & took over throne

France

Charter of 1814

1814

Established Peers & Deputies.
deputies: elected, but you had to pay 1000 taxes & be over 40 to hold office. 12,000 qualified.
You had to pay 300 francs to vote - 100,000 qualified to vote.

Louis XVIII

1814 - 1824

Brief abdication in 1814 because of Napoleon's return

First Peace of Paris

May 1814

White Terror

1815 - 1816

Louis uncomfortable with this - period of extra-legal vigilanti. A lot of murders to Napoleon's friends, Ney was killed for his treason. Some were official killings, others were not. By late 1816, Louis stops this & new officials (more moderate) are elected. White terror fades out. These people in the chamber were extremely conservative - ultra-royalists

Richilieu

1815 - 1820

Aided in Bourbon restoration. PM twice; 1815-18, 1820-21.
Helped France pay off indemnities

Battle of Waterloo

June 18, 1815

Second Peace of Paris

November 20, 1815

After 100 Days.. Much stricter on Paris than the First Peace

Decazes

1819 - 1820

Prime minister & favorite of Louis XVIII. Ultra-royalists didn't like him at all.

Assassination Duke of Berry

1820

Charles Ferdinand. Was the son of Charles X, they assassinated him because they didn't want him to produce an heir & continue the Bourbon line

Charles X

1824 - 1830

Fled to Versailles. Violated charter of 1814 given to people by Louis XVIII. He did not understand that anything had changed.

Jules de Polignac

1829 - 1830

Arch-conservative, émigré, deeply religious (almost mystic)

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

Dud d'Orléans

Banquet movement

1830

Four Oridnances

July 26 1830

Started Three Glorious Days

July Revolution

July 27, 1830 - July 29, 1830

Three Glorious Days

François Guisot

1840 - 1848

"If you want to vote - get rich."
Immobilisme
Prime Minister. Leader of conservatives in July Monarchy.
Forced to resign in 1848

Louis Napoleon Bonaparte

1848 - 1872

Wins 3/4ths of vote. Sweeps vote! THEN ABOLISHES PRESIDENCY & ESTABLISHES HIS EMPIRE IN 1851!!!!

Revolution of 1848

1848

National Workshops

1848

Louis Napoleon Bonaparte

1848

Declared Emperor for life in 1851

Provisional government

1848

Albert de Lamartine

June Days

June 23, 1848 - June 26, 1848

Overthrow July Monarchy. They establish presidential election & write a constitution

England

Castlereagh

1812 - 1822

Committed suicide in 1822

Lord Liverpool

1812 - 1817

Prime Minister extremely conservative.
He became known for his repressive measures during this economic unrest

Corn Law

1815

Peterloo Massacre

August 1819

Duke of Wellington "Iron Duke"

1828 - 1834

Defeated Napoleon at Waterloo. VERY conservative tory.
But ironically for free trade

Factory Acts

1833

Crystal Palace Exhibition

1851

Darwin's death

1882

Russia

Alexander I

1801 - 1825

Nicholas I

1825 - 1855

Decembrist Revolt

1825

Polish Revolution

1830 - 1831

Russia crushed Poland

Prussia

Frederick William III

1797 - 1840

Frederick William IV

1840 - 1861

Revolution if 1848

1848

Ludolf Camphausen

1848 - 1849

Prime Minister under Frederick William IV
Liberal businessman from the bourgeoisie; appoints likeminded men

German Confederation

J.G. Fichte

1762 - 1814

Considered a father of German nationalism

George Hegel

1770 - 1831

Philosopher; proponent of German nationalism

Friedrich List

1789 - 1846

Conference of Aix-la-Chapelle

1818

Decided when/how to take military occupation out of France.

Friederich Engels

1820 - 1895

Ludwig I

1825 - 1848

German Customs Union

1834

Ultimate goal: wanted to establish a single toll system.

Communist Manifesto

1848

Frankfurt Parliament

1848 - 1849

Belgium

Revolution

1830 - 1831

Wanted independence from Netherlands. Dutch: protestants & the (commercial traders) country was Catholic & liked protection. There's success and London/Europe created Belgium, but it's supposed to be neutral.

Liberal constitution - Leopold of Sax-Coburg

Austria

Francis I (II) - Austrian Emperor

1804 - 1835

Holy Roman Emperor (After defeat of 3rd Coalition by Napoleon at Battle of Austerlitz.. 1792-1806
Founded Austrian Empire 1804

Metternich serves Austrian Empire

1809 - 1848

Carlsbad Decrees

1819

Issued by Metternich because he believed that universities were for training loyal citizens. Not producing free-thinkers.
Censorship - outlaws Burschenschaften.
Prince from each state is able to place supervision on each campus to monitor/supervise ideas.
Teachers could be blacklisted if caught teaching revolutionary principles.

Ferdinand

1835 - 1848

Austrian Emperor, President of German Confederation, King of Hungary & Bohemia (as Ferdinand V), abdicated after Revolution of 1848

Franz Jospeh

1848 - 1916

King of Austria

Revolution of 1848

1848

Italy

Charles Albert

1831 - 1849

Defeated at Custoza & Novara, abdicated in favor of his son. Wanted Italian unification

Young Italy

1831

Established my Mazzini
"Risorgimento"

Victor Emmanuel II

1849 - 1878

Became first King of Italy

death of Felice Orsini

1858

death of Camillo di Cavour

1861

Pius IX

1878

death Giusseppi Garibaldi

1882