First Serbian Revolution
Second Serbian Revolution
Russia, Prussia, and Austria signed this in Paris. created after ultimate defeat of Napoleon. Was to instill the divine right of kings & Christian principles
Signed in Paris by UK, Prussia, Russia, & Russia. It renewed alliances first agreed upon in 1813 & modified aims of alliance from defeating Bonaparte. France joined in 1818. It became ineffective in the mid 1820s after British distaste at how they handled reactionary issues
Spain, Piedmont, Naples, Portugal, Two Kingdoms of Sicily
France, Belgium, Poland
France, Milan, Prussia, Venetia, Austria (Hungary, Prague, Czechs, Vienna)
Russians are in Paris
Treaty of Foutainbleu - Napoleon surrendered (went into exile in Elba)
Napoleon escaped Elba & took over throne
Established Peers & Deputies.
deputies: elected, but you had to pay 1000 taxes & be over 40 to hold office. 12,000 qualified.
You had to pay 300 francs to vote - 100,000 qualified to vote.
Brief abdication in 1814 because of Napoleon's return
Aided in Bourbon restoration. PM twice; 1815-18, 1820-21.
Helped France pay off indemnities
Louis uncomfortable with this - period of extra-legal vigilanti. A lot of murders to Napoleon's friends, Ney was killed for his treason. Some were official killings, others were not. By late 1816, Louis stops this & new officials (more moderate) are elected. White terror fades out. These people in the chamber were extremely conservative - ultra-royalists
After 100 Days.. Much stricter on Paris than the First Peace
Prime minister & favorite of Louis XVIII. Ultra-royalists didn't like him at all.
Charles Ferdinand. Was the son of Charles X, they assassinated him because they didn't want him to produce an heir & continue the Bourbon line
Fled to Versailles. Violated charter of 1814 given to people by Louis XVIII. He did not understand that anything had changed.
Arch-conservative, émigré, deeply religious (almost mystic)
Started Three Glorious Days
Three Glorious Days
"If you want to vote - get rich."
Prime Minister. Leader of conservatives in July Monarchy.
Forced to resign in 1848
Wins 3/4ths of vote. Sweeps vote! THEN ABOLISHES PRESIDENCY & ESTABLISHES HIS EMPIRE IN 1851!!!!
Albert de Lamartine
Declared Emperor for life in 1851
Overthrow July Monarchy. They establish presidential election & write a constitution
Prime Minister extremely conservative.
He became known for his repressive measures during this economic unrest
Committed suicide in 1822
Defeated Napoleon at Waterloo. VERY conservative tory.
But ironically for free trade
Russia crushed Poland
Prime Minister under Frederick William IV
Liberal businessman from the bourgeoisie; appoints likeminded men
Considered a father of German nationalism
Philosopher; proponent of German nationalism
Decided when/how to take military occupation out of France.
Ultimate goal: wanted to establish a single toll system.
Wanted independence from Netherlands. Dutch: protestants & the (commercial traders) country was Catholic & liked protection. There's success and London/Europe created Belgium, but it's supposed to be neutral.
Liberal constitution - Leopold of Sax-Coburg
Holy Roman Emperor (After defeat of 3rd Coalition by Napoleon at Battle of Austerlitz.. 1792-1806
Founded Austrian Empire 1804
Issued by Metternich because he believed that universities were for training loyal citizens. Not producing free-thinkers.
Censorship - outlaws Burschenschaften.
Prince from each state is able to place supervision on each campus to monitor/supervise ideas.
Teachers could be blacklisted if caught teaching revolutionary principles.
Austrian Emperor, President of German Confederation, King of Hungary & Bohemia (as Ferdinand V), abdicated after Revolution of 1848
King of Austria
Established my Mazzini
Defeated at Custoza & Novara, abdicated in favor of his son. Wanted Italian unification
Became first King of Italy