The Unification of the Egyptian Kingdom took place around 3000BCE. Egypt was under the rule of two kingdoms, Lower Egypt and Higher Egypt. The King of lower Egypt would wear a white crown, whereas the King of Upper Egypt would wear a read crown. King Narmer wore both hats to represent civilization between the two. He established his capital, Memphis, near the spot where both Upper and Lower Egypt met, and formed the first Egyptian dynasty.
Geography of Ancient Egypt:
Like the Mesopotamians, Ancient Egypt also has a river which was considered a trivial water resource, especially as Egypt lays on a ground of desert. However, unlike the Tigris and Euphrates river, the Nile works like clockwork, and is often predictable. The Nile also produced generous amounts of silt.
- Due to the scarcity of wood, the two predominant building materials used in ancient Egypt were sun-baked mud brick and stone, mainly limestone, but also sandstone and granite in considerable quantities.
- Ancient Egypt was a monarchy
- Worshiped Pharaohs, which are god-kings
- The fundamental pattern of Ancient Egyptian belief seems to have centered on the worship of numerous high gods or supernatural forces that controlled the universe and sanctioned the human sociopolitical structure.
Language and Writing:
- Ancient Egyptian over the years evolved to different variations with records showing that the language was spoken even in the 17th century as the Coptic language. Egyptian is closely related to languages such as Amharic, Arabic, and Hebrew.
- The written language of Ancient Egypt was hieroglyphics, which is pictorial writing.
- For example, the Egyptians
developed a calendar to help them keep track of the
time between floods and to plan their planting season.
Priests observed that the same star—Sirius—appeared
above the eastern horizon just before the floods came.
- Egyptians developed a system of written numbers for counting, adding, and sub-
tracting. The system would have helped to assess and collect taxes. Scribes used an
early form of geometry to survey and reset property boundaries after the annual floods.
Mathematical knowledge helped Egypt’s skillful engineers and architects make accu-
rate measurements to construct their remarkable pyramids and palaces. Egyptian archi-
tects were the first to use stone columns in homes, palaces, and temples.
- Egyptian medicine was also famous in the ancient world. Egyptian doctors
knew how to check a person’s heart rate by feeling for a pulse in different parts of
the body. They set broken bones with splints and had effective treatments for
wounds and fevers. They also used surgery to treat some conditions.
- Invented papyrus