"Akrotiri’s prosperity came to a sudden end with the massive and cataclysmic eruption of the island’s volcano. Preceded by earthquakes of a magnitude of 7 on the Richter scale which destroyed the town and created 9m high tidal waves, the eruption itself probably occurred a few days later and released an estimated 15 billion tons of magma into the atmosphere, making it the largest volcanic eruption of the last 10,000 years. The entire island was buried in a thick layer of ash, Trianda on Rhodes was destroyed, 7cm of ash covered sites in northern Crete, Anatolia suffered from the ash fall-out and even ice-cores in Greenland demonstrate the far-reaching effects of the eruption. The precise date of the event is much debated amongst scholars with wildly different estimates vigorously defended in order to support various hypotheses for other events such as the destruction of Minoan palaces or Mycenaean imperialistic ambitions in the Aegean. The most agreed upon date ranges somewhere between 1650 and 1550 BCE (with ice-core and carbon-dating studies suggesting the earlier date)."
Cartwright, Mark. "Thera." Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited, 7 July 2012. Web. 03 Mar. 2014.
Linked to the heroic tales of Oedipus, Hercules, and the voyage of the Argonauts.
Late Bronze Age weaponry
Writing of epics:
Iliad & Odyssey attributed 2 Homer
may have been collections of many writers
historians continue to debate the proper date for Homer's writings.
Independent city-states grow & thrive
date of death may be 425 bce
"Father of History" or the "Father of Lies" ?
"He was called
The Father of History’ by the Roman writer and orator Cicero for his famous work The Histories but has also been called “The Father of Lies” by critics who claim thesehistories’ are little more than tall tales. Criticism of Herodotus’ work seems to have originated among Athenians who took exception to his account of the Battle of Marathon (490 BCE) and, specifically, which families were due the most honor for the victory over the Persians. More serious criticism of his work has to do with the credibility of the accounts of his travels."
Mark, Joshua J. "Herodotus" Ancient History Encyclopedia. 02 September 2009. <http://www.ancient.eu.com/herodotus/>
Each of the 9 chapters dedicated 2 a Muse
w/Nile Valley & Mesopotamia & Cyprus
tin + copper = bronze
Minoans traded *Tin & *Saffron (from crocus flower)
Palace @ Knossos
artisan work stations
relig. shrines (polytheistic--> mother goddess & bull)
frescoes (dolphins, gardens, bulls... men+women in public)
definitely invaders!... = Mycenaeans (greek speaking ppl)
conquer Crete & mainland
$ in sea TRADE
w/Sicily, Italy, Egypt, Mesopotamia
Troy vs. Mycenae
?economic rivalry or romance?
Age of decline
Greece = villages
Dorian invaders from north
Iron= cheaper than bronze
more citizens had weapons, helmets, shields, swords
phalanx= armed foot soldiers
archon = chief official
outlaws debt slavery
opened high office positions to citizens
grant citizenship 2 foreigners
Athenian assembly given more power
export wine + olive oil (helps farmers)
created by Cleisthenes
all male citizens over 30 yrs old = member
Darius v Athens @ Marathon
Xerxes v Sparta (Leonidas) @ Thermopylae
Burning of Athens
Athens v Persian fleet @ strait of Salamis
Themistocles= Athenian leader -> triumphant
Xerxes (Darius' son) v. Leonidas (warrior king 4Spartans)
"Here they defended themselves to the last, such as still had swords using them, and the others resisting with their hands and teeth; till the barbarians who… now encircled them upon every side, overwhelmed and buried the remnant that was left beneath showers of missile weapons." -Herodotus The Persian Wars
seizes noble land 4 poor
For full text, visit: http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/republic.html
+power of plebian class
to view some of the laws found on these tablets, visit
Gauls conquer city of Rome
Romans -> GOLD to Gauls (leave w/gold in hand)
Gauls = ppl from 2day's France
War with Carthage (North Africa)
Legendary Moment: Hannibal’s troops cross the Pyrenees and the Alps on elephants.
African forest elephants are generally about 8 feet high @the shoulder… so they are quite a bit shorter than the Indian elephants our boy Alexander encountered. Still, it is a surprise to see elephants on the battlefield.
as he is there, the Romans head to Hannibal’s city of
Carthage in N. Africa.
H. rushes there 2 protect his city
doesn't end well 4 him :(
~100 bce Caesar is born
59 bce – 50 bce= Caesar in Gaul being awesome & conquering
50 bce Senate, infl by Pompey, orders C. to disband his army and C. refuses [Crosses the Rubicon]
48- 44 bce Dictator
enacts reforms in Rome
public works +
Julian calendar invented :D
44 bce assassinated by Brutus et al
Marc Antony + Lepidus + Octavian(aka Caesar Augustus)
First Roman Emperor (officially)
First of many roads
BENEFITS of roads like Appian Way
troops + supplies move quickly
blt by military in peace time
skilled engineers plan (roads still exist today!)
$ from provinces the roads serviced
paid for by wealthy families, politicians running 4 office, emperors, public officials [to win public support]
becomes the 1st Christian Emperor of Rome
The Greeks will borrow this alphabet from the Phoenicians
Ptolemaic rule over Phoenician cities and colonies.