War of 1812

Events

Embargo Fails

1807

The embargo against Britain fails.

Nonintercourse Act

1809

Congress replaces embargo with Nonintercourse Act, which stated that the US would resume trade with France and Britain if they lifted restrictions on American shipping.

Macon's Bill No. 2

1810

Macon's Bill No. 2 passed by Congress to restore trade with Britain and France but promised that if either country actively recognized America's neutrality, then the US would resume sanctions against the other country. France withdraws decrees against American shipping, Madison orders sanctions against Britain, even though France continues seizing ships.

Battle of Tippecanoe

1811

Governor William Henry Harrison of Indiana territory led troops into Indian village of Prophetstown, ruled by Tenskwatawa and Tecumseh and burned the villiage down.

War Hawks in Congress

1811

War Hawks take lead in Congress. (War Hawks are strongly nationalist southerners and westerners) They suggested invading Canada to drive Britain out of North America.

War of 1812

June 1812

President Madison, humiliated by British interference with American trade, impressments and support for Indian attacks on settlers, urges Congress to declare war on Britain.

Riots Break Out

June 1812 - August 1812

Riots break out in Baltimore in protest of the war.

Hull enters Canada

July 1812

General William Hull enters Canada. This is the first of three failed attempts made by the U.S. to invade Canada.

Surrender of Fort Michilimackinac

July 1812

The British force the surrender of Fort Michilimackinac (in present-day Michigan).

Hull's Surrender to Brock*

August 1812

(2) General William Hull surrenders to General Isaac Brock at Detroit. BRITISH VICTORY

Constitution vs Guerrière*

August 1812

(3) Constitution defeats Gurrière. US VICTORY

Fort Dearborn Massacre*

August 1812

(1) Native Americans overwhelm Americans as they abandon the site. BRITISH VICTORY

Brock Dies

October 1812

General Isaac Brock is killed at the Battle of Queenston Heights (Canada).

Wasp vs Frolic*

October 1812

(5) Wasp defeats Frolic. US VICTORY

Capture of the Macedonian*

October 1812

(4) US captures Macedonian. US VICTORY

Raisin River Massacre

January 1813

British and Indian allies repel American troops at the Battle of Frenchtown (present-day Michigan). American survivors are killed the following day in the Raisin River Massacre (present-day Michigan).

Retaking Detroit

1813

American ships led by Oliver Hazard Perry defeated British flotilla in 1813 on Lake Erie, enabling the American army, headed by Harrison, to retake Detroit.

Capture of York

April 1813

U.S. troops capture and burn the city of York (present-day Toronto).

Fort Meigs

May 1813

The siege of Fort Meigs (present-day Ohio).

Shannon vs Chesapeake*

June 1813

(6) Shannon defeats Chesapeake. BRITISH VICTORY

Battle of Lake Erie*

September 1813

(7) Captain Perry defeats the British at the Battle of Lake Erie. US VICTORY

Battle of Thames*

October 1813

(8) The warrior Tecumseh is killed at the Battle of the Thames (Canada). Harrison's army defeats British and Indian Force.

Battle of Crysler's Farm

November 1813

The Battle of Crysler's Farm (Canada).

Invasion of Florida

1814

Jackson invades Spanish colony Florida, defeating Seminole Indians and seizing Spanish fort at Pensacola.

Creek Indian Defeat

1814

Andrew Jackson (of Tennessee) crushed Creek Indians of Alabama who allied with British. To make peace, survivors surrendered most of their land.

Battle of Chippawa

July 1814

The Battle of Chippawa (Canada).

Battle of Lundy's Lane

July 1814

The Battle of Lundy's Lane (present-day Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada).

Peace Negotiations

August 1814

Peace negotiations begin in Ghent.

Burning of DC*

August 24, 1814 - August 25, 1814

(9) The British burn Washington, DC in retaliation for the burning of York. President James Madison flees the Capital. BRITISH VICTORY

Treaty of Ghent

September 1814

The Treaty of Ghent: Americans and British diplomats agree to the terms of the treaty which restored prewar boundaries. They agreed to set up a commission to discuss any boundary disputes at a future time. Treaty did not address issues of neutrality or impressments (however, after Napoleon's defeat, British no longer needed to impress American sailors or to stop American trade with French).

Lake Champlain*

September 1814

(10) Macdonough defeats British. US VICTORY

Battle of Plattsburg & Battle of Baltimore*

September 1814

(11) The Battle of Plattsburg on Lake Champlain is a major American victory, securing its northern border. The Battle of Baltimore takes place at Fort McHenry (11), where Francis Scott Key wrote The Star Spangled Banner.

Hartford Convention

December 1814

Federalist delegates from New England states met at Hartford, Connecticut to consider secession and making a separate peace with Britain (increased nationalism from victory in war, especially in Federalist NE states). Drawing back from the brink, the delegates instead demanded constitutional amendments designed to strengthen New England's political power. Madison ignored their demands and voters punished Federalists in elections that ensued. By 1820, the Federalist Party was dead.

Battle of New Orleans*

January 1815

(12) Andrew Jackson defeats the British at the Battle of New Orleans. Americans only suffered 71 casualties compared to 2036 British casualties. Tragic because it occurred two weeks after Americans and British signed the Treaty of Ghent. US VICTORY

Peace Treaty Ratified

February 1815

The Peace Treaty is ratified and President Madison declares the war over.