The embargo against Britain fails.
Congress replaces embargo with Nonintercourse Act, which stated that the US would resume trade with France and Britain if they lifted restrictions on American shipping.
Macon's Bill No. 2 passed by Congress to restore trade with Britain and France but promised that if either country actively recognized America's neutrality, then the US would resume sanctions against the other country. France withdraws decrees against American shipping, Madison orders sanctions against Britain, even though France continues seizing ships.
Governor William Henry Harrison of Indiana territory led troops into Indian village of Prophetstown, ruled by Tenskwatawa and Tecumseh and burned the villiage down.
War Hawks take lead in Congress. (War Hawks are strongly nationalist southerners and westerners) They suggested invading Canada to drive Britain out of North America.
President Madison, humiliated by British interference with American trade, impressments and support for Indian attacks on settlers, urges Congress to declare war on Britain.
Riots break out in Baltimore in protest of the war.
General William Hull enters Canada. This is the first of three failed attempts made by the U.S. to invade Canada.
The British force the surrender of Fort Michilimackinac (in present-day Michigan).
(2) General William Hull surrenders to General Isaac Brock at Detroit. BRITISH VICTORY
(3) Constitution defeats Gurrière. US VICTORY
(1) Native Americans overwhelm Americans as they abandon the site. BRITISH VICTORY
General Isaac Brock is killed at the Battle of Queenston Heights (Canada).
(5) Wasp defeats Frolic. US VICTORY
(4) US captures Macedonian. US VICTORY
British and Indian allies repel American troops at the Battle of Frenchtown (present-day Michigan). American survivors are killed the following day in the Raisin River Massacre (present-day Michigan).
American ships led by Oliver Hazard Perry defeated British flotilla in 1813 on Lake Erie, enabling the American army, headed by Harrison, to retake Detroit.
U.S. troops capture and burn the city of York (present-day Toronto).
The siege of Fort Meigs (present-day Ohio).
(6) Shannon defeats Chesapeake. BRITISH VICTORY
(7) Captain Perry defeats the British at the Battle of Lake Erie. US VICTORY
(8) The warrior Tecumseh is killed at the Battle of the Thames (Canada). Harrison's army defeats British and Indian Force.
The Battle of Crysler's Farm (Canada).
Jackson invades Spanish colony Florida, defeating Seminole Indians and seizing Spanish fort at Pensacola.
Andrew Jackson (of Tennessee) crushed Creek Indians of Alabama who allied with British. To make peace, survivors surrendered most of their land.
The Battle of Chippawa (Canada).
The Battle of Lundy's Lane (present-day Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada).
Peace negotiations begin in Ghent.
(9) The British burn Washington, DC in retaliation for the burning of York. President James Madison flees the Capital. BRITISH VICTORY
The Treaty of Ghent: Americans and British diplomats agree to the terms of the treaty which restored prewar boundaries. They agreed to set up a commission to discuss any boundary disputes at a future time. Treaty did not address issues of neutrality or impressments (however, after Napoleon's defeat, British no longer needed to impress American sailors or to stop American trade with French).
(10) Macdonough defeats British. US VICTORY
(11) The Battle of Plattsburg on Lake Champlain is a major American victory, securing its northern border. The Battle of Baltimore takes place at Fort McHenry (11), where Francis Scott Key wrote The Star Spangled Banner.
Federalist delegates from New England states met at Hartford, Connecticut to consider secession and making a separate peace with Britain (increased nationalism from victory in war, especially in Federalist NE states). Drawing back from the brink, the delegates instead demanded constitutional amendments designed to strengthen New England's political power. Madison ignored their demands and voters punished Federalists in elections that ensued. By 1820, the Federalist Party was dead.
(12) Andrew Jackson defeats the British at the Battle of New Orleans. Americans only suffered 71 casualties compared to 2036 British casualties. Tragic because it occurred two weeks after Americans and British signed the Treaty of Ghent. US VICTORY
The Peace Treaty is ratified and President Madison declares the war over.