Physician, Philosopher, physiologist, and psychologist. Established the first psychological laboratory (1879) in Leipzig Germany. Was credited to be the founder of experimental psychology through his study of physiological psychology which he referred to as "Volunteerism".
1842 - 1910
Founder of American Psychology. Taught at Harvard. Left Psychology for Philosophy. Described by others often as "having anticipated functionalism". Functionalism is derived from Darwin's Theory of Evolution. Functionalism emphasized the continuity of psychological processes both within species and between species.
1849 - 1936
Studied Reflexology and effects on behavior. Reflexologist studied animal behavior, and physical and chemical processes involved with reflex behaviors. Reflexology helped to build the foundations of an objective approach to the study of behavior.
E. B. Titchener
1867 - 1927
Established Structuralism in the psychology program at Cornell. Structuralism focuses on observing mental processes through perception, cognition, discrimination, insight, discrimination, judgement, choice, or ratiocination.
Robert S. Woodworth
1869 - 1962
Studied under William James. Proposed the S-O-R formation for mediational behaviorism. This examines motives, response tendencies, and purposes to help determine the effect of environmental stimuli on organisms.
1874 - 1949
Research included both human and nonhumans. Research was focused on the process of learning, the law of effect, and classical S-R behavioralism.
John B. Watson
1878 - 1958
Started the "behavioral revolution" with his "behavioral manifesto" in the Psychological Review (1913). Was credited to be the first to use the terms behaviorism and behaviorist. Launched the classical S-R behaviorism which emphasized that psychology should be objective, empirical, and analytical. Classical S-R psychology rejected structuralism and functionalism.
Clark. L. Hull
1884 - 1952
Wrote Principles of Behavior (1943). This work focused a mathematical system based on postulate-deductive method. This emphasized the the natural the scientific process and causal sequences between stimuli and responses. Hull did not examine cognition, but focused on stimuli and some internal aspect of an organism that evoked a response, and how the response was accounted for in S-R relations.
Edward C. Tolman
1886 - 1959
Founded purposive behaviorism. He is classed under behavioralism, neobehavioralism, and cognitive organizational theory, His work included examining learning situations with rats in mazes which focused on strengthening of stimulus response connections. This combined radical behavioralism with cognitive organizational theories.
B. F. Skinner
1904 - 1990
Skinner's early interests involved writing "objectively". In college he studied environmental conditions that affect the elicitation of reflexes which lead to S-R behavioralism model. He published, The Behavior of Organisms (1938) which argued a systematic approach to the study of behavior. He published, Verbal Behavior (1957) which defines verbal behavior as "behavior that is reinforced through the mediation of others". First used the term, "radical behavioralism" as a sense of "thoroughgoing" behaviorism (1945). He started the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (JEAB) in 1958.