His book "Philosophi Naturalis Principia Mathematica" published in 1687. Newton's Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that dominated scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. It also demonstrated that the motion of objects on the earth and that of celestial bodies could be described by the same principles.
1743 - 1794
The "father of modern chemistry," was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry and biology. He named oxygen (1778) and hydrogen (1783) and predicted silicon (1787).
He helped construct the metric system, put together the first extensive list of elements, and helped to reform chemical nomenclature. He was also the first to establish that sulfur was an element (1777) rather than a compound.
He discovered that, although matter may change its form or shape, its mass always remains the same.
1809 - 1882
He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection.
He published his theory of evolution in his(1859) book "On the Origin of Species".
1856 - 1939
Freud qualified as a Doctor of Medicine in 1881, and then carried out research into cerebral palsy, aphasia and microscopic neuroanatomy . Freud postulated the existence of libido, developed therapeutic techniques, discovered transference and established its central role in the analytic process, and proposed that dreams help to preserve sleep by representing sensory stimulii as fulfilled wishes that would.
As such it continues to generate extensive debate, notably over its scientific status and as to whether it advances or is detrimental to the feminist cause.
1879 - 1955
He was German-born theoretical physicist.His best known for his mass–energy equivalence formula, he received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics.In 1917, He applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe as a whole.
He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, and did not go back to Germany.
He helped alert President Franklin Roosevelt that Germany might be developing an atomic weapon, reserch that eventually led to what would become the Manhattan Project.
Significant event in science
He was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. He did fundamental work in the field of optics, invented an improved version of the refracting telescope (the Keplerian Telescope), and mentioned the telescopic discoveries of his contemporary Galileo Galilei.
He was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter, and the observation and analysis of sunspots. Two New Sciences now called kinematics and strength of materials.
Evangelista Torricelli was an Italian physicist and mathematician, best known for his invention of the barometer. Torricelli's chief invention was the mercury barometer, which arose from solving a practical problem.
Ole Christensen Rømer was a Danish astronomer who in 1676 made the first quantitative measurements of the speed of light. In scientific literature alternative spellings such as "Roemer", "Römer", or "Romer" are common.
Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov was a Russian polymath, scientist and writer, who made important contributions to literature, education, and science. Among his discoveries was the atmosphere of Venus. Lomonosov was also a poet and influenced the formation of the modern Russian literary language.
Five medical scientists
1821 - 1902
He was a German doctor, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist and politician, known for his advancement of public health. Referred to as "the father of modern pathology", he is considered one of the founders of social medicine.
In 1892, he was awarded the Copley Medal. Among his most famous students was anthropologist Franz Boas, who became a professor at Columbia University.
1822 - 1895
He was a French chemist and microbiologist who was one of the most important founders of medical microbiology. His discoveries reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and he created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax. He was best known to the general public for inventing a method to treat milk and wine in order to prevent it from causing sickness, a process that came to be called pasteurization.
1881 - 1955
He wrote many articles on bacteriology, immunology, and chemotherapy. His best-known discoveries are the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the antibiotic substance penicillin from the mould Penicillium notatum in 1928, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain.
The active ingredient in that mould, which Fleming named penicillin, turned out to be an infection-fighting agent of enormous potency.
1887 - 1971
Bernardo Alberto Houssay was an Argentine physiologist who, in 1947, received one half Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the role played by pituitary hormones in regulating the amount of blood sugar (glucose) in animals.
He is the first Argentine and Latin American Nobel laureate in the sciences. (He shared the prize with Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Cori, who won for their discoveries regarding the role of glucose in carbohydrate metabolism.)
1904 - 1950
He researched in the field of blood transfusions, developing improved techniques for blood storage, and applied his expert knowledge to developing large-scale blood banks early in World War II. The research and development aspect of his blood storage work is disputed. In 1943, Drew's distinction in his profession was recognized when he became the first black surgeon selected to serve as an examiner on the American Board of Surgery.
New medical advancement
William Harvey publishes An Anatomical Study of the Motion of the Heart and of the Blood in Animals, describing how blood is pumped throughout the body by the heart, and then returns to the heart and recirculates. The book is very controversial but becomes the basis for modern research on the heart and blood vessels.
Experimenting on dogs, English architect Sir Christopher Wren is the first to administer medications intravenously by means of an animal bladder attached to a sharpened quill. Wren also experiments with canine blood transfusions (although safe human blood transfusions only became feasible after Karl Landsteiner develops the ABO blood-typing system in 1900).
Anton van Leeuwenhoek refines the microscope and fashions nearly 500 models. Discovers blood cells and observes animal and plant tissues and microorganisms.
James Lind , a Scottish naval surgeon, discovers that citrus fruits prevent scurvy. He publishes his Treatise of the Scurvy in 1754, identifying the cure for this common and dangerous disease of sailors, although it takes another 40 years before an official Admiralty order dictates the supply of lemon juice to ships.
Edward Jenner develops a method to protect people from smallpox by exposing them to the cowpox virus. In his famous experiment, he rubs pus from a dairymaid's cowpox postule into scratches on the arm, and then exposes him to smallpox six weeks later. The process becomes known as vaccination from the Latin vacca for cow. Vaccination with cowpox is made compulsory in Britain in 1853.