Chaper 19: The Hundred Years War

Events

The Cause of the War

1328 - 1337

Arguments between the King of England and the King of France for control over the French thrown.

The beginning of the war

1337

Phillip seized the Duchy

Campaigning

1340 - 1350

King Edward III campaigned in different countries to promote his cause.

The Battle of Crécy

1346

This was the first of many major important battles of the war. King Edward III had entered france with an army of 30,000 men. Among these men where the famous bowmen/archers. This battle was marked as a major loss for France, loosing 1,200 knights and 30,000 foot-soldiers.

The Black Plague

1348 - 1349

The Black Plauge spreads throughout France and Englad and for a short period of time, slowed down hostile activities. During this time England lost approximately one-third of its population, while France only losed approximately one-fourth of its population.

Treaty of Brétigny

May 9,1360

King Edward III and King John II signed a peace treaty that momentarily ended the war.

Middle period

1377

The start of the middle period is marked by the death of King Edward III in Sheen. After his death his ten-year-old grandson, King Richard II.

Siege of Orleans

1428 - 1429

Joan of Arc joins the battle on the French side after having religious visions. After this major battle the French finally have the upper hand in the war.

Joan of Arc captured

1430 - 1431

Joan of Arc is captured and sold back to England. After various trials she eventually was burned alive at the stake on May 30th of 1431

Final Battle

1450

Final battle fought at Formigny, the French were victorious.

Institutions

Knights

1337 - 1453

Hired by both King Edward III and King Phillip VI. Knights where to provide the king with soldiers when the king demanded them.

Bowmen/Archers

1346 - 1415

Archers where hired by King Phillip III and King Henry II. These bowmen gave England the upper hand in many battles.

Peasants

1377 - 1430

Supported King Phillip IV and Revolted againts the King of England. One of the most important individuals during the Hundred Years War, Joan of Arc, was even a peasant.

High Court

1431

Tried Joan of Arc and found her guilty of witchcraft and burned her at the stake on the street of Rouen.

Individuals

King Edward III

1327 - 1377

King Edward III was crowned the King of England at the age of fourteen in which he continued to rule until 1377. He was important to our chapter because he declared that he was the true King of France, which causes conflict leading to the start of the Hundred Years War.

King Phillip VI

1328 - 1350

He was crowned King of France after King Charles VI died without a direct descendent. There were two main claimants to the throne; King Phillip VI and King Edward III. However, King Phillip VI was crowned because in France there was a law that forbid females and those descended in the female line to succeed to the throne. This caused the start of the Hundred Years War. The immediate cause of the war, however, started when King Phillip VI confiscated the duchy.

Jean Froissart

1337 - 1405

Started documenting the war and gained the support of the French.

Duke Phillip

1396 - 1467

Duke Phillip the Good of Burgundy formed an alliance with King Henry V, and forms lordship with Flanders, Barbant, and Luxembourg.

Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc)

1411 - 1431

She was commonly known as the, "Maid of Orlean," bron between 1410 and 1412. She was a very important indidual during the Hundred Years War. The most important battle was The Battle of Orleans, where France finally had the upper hand in the war. She went on to lead many other battles until unfortunately her capture eventually lead to her death. She was later burned at the stake on the streets of Rouen.

Primary Sources

Jean Froissar: On the Hundred Years War.

1337 - 1453

In this chronicle it discusses how knights operated in war and how they used chivalry but the battles were still horrific. This chronicle fits well with Patricia Crone's model because the classes were not able to kill higher ranks.

Letters to the King of England

1429

Contains letters from Joan of Arc to the king of England that tells him she saw God and he told her that she was going to be the savior of France. This fits Patricia Crone's model with the class system. Because Joan of Arc was a peasant it was a shock that the letters got through to the King of England.

Trials of Joan of Arc

1431

Medieval Sourcebook: Covers the trails in which Joan of Arc was convicted and eventually burned at the stake.