Clinical supervision was a new era in the growth of education. Various books published between the 1950s to the 1970s, which provided clinical supervisory models spread like wildfire. Few models like this one were not only widely used, but quickly disparaged and misunderstood.
"The model that emerged from these efforts was published in a book by Goldhammer (1969) entitled Clinical Supervision: Special Methods for the Supervision of Teachers. Based on visits to hundreds of classrooms and hundreds of supervisory conferences, Goldhammer developed a five-phase process of clinical supervision that was designed to involve teachers and supervisors in a reflective dialogue.
Phase 1—Pre-observation Conference: This phase was designed to provide a conceptual framework for the observation. During this phase, the teacher and supervisor planned the specifics of the observation.
Phase 2—Classroom Observation: During this phase, the supervisor observed the teacher using the framework articulated in Phase 1.
Phase 3—Analysis: Data from the observation was organized by the supervisor with the intent of helping teachers participate "in developing evaluations of their own teaching" (p. 63).
Phase 4—A Supervision Conference: The teacher and supervisor engaged in a dialogue about the data. The teacher was asked to reflect upon and explain his or her professional practice. This stage also could include providing "didactic assistance" (p. 70) to the teacher.
Phase 5—Analysis of the Analysis: The supervisor's "practice was examined with all of the rigor and for basically the same purposes that Teacher's professional behavior was analyzed theretofore" (p. 71)."
Regardless of the reasons for its demise, Goldhammer's vision of supervision as a collegial, inquiry-driven quest for more effective instructional practices quickly disappeared. The five phases of the clinical model, absent the rich dialogue proposed by Goldhammer, became the de facto structure for the evaluation of teachers—clearly a purpose for which it was not intended." (Marzano, Frontier, & Livingston, 2011)