Greece was invaded by the Dorians, a nomadic tribe who didn't have a writing system. This made the Mycean civilization less advanced and less organized. Without written records from this time we don't know much about these "Dark Ages."
Draco was evil but with some goodness. He had a harsh and severe law, created a seperation between the rich and the poor, and believed in death and slavery. He took power from the nobles and placed it into the hands of the leaders of the courts.
Solon was the father of democracy for Athens. His four political reforms were that he: 1) divided society into four social classes, 2) outlawed debt slavery, 3) allowed all citizens to participate in Assembly, 4) allowed citizens to bring charges to court. His four economic reforms were that: 1) fathers must teach their sons a trade, 2) foreign tradesmen allowed to settle in Athens and given citizenship in trade for natural resourses, 3) regulated crop export(olives), 4) managed grains, forbade exporting it.
Three political reforms: 1) distric organization, 2) power of assembl y, allowed people to participate, 3) Council of 500. The Council of 500 is a cross section of society to explain and introduce laws.
Darius, the leader of Persia, wanted more land and wanted to conquer Greek city-states in Anatolia. Anatolia revolted. Athens then sent help to aid the city-states, which stopped Persia. Persia sent 25,000 men across the Agean Sea to seize Athens. Persia lost, Loosing 6,000 men from Athens' phanalax.
Xerxes, the emperor of Persia, fights to avenge ,his father, Darius' death. Fights against Athens. Xerxes rebuilt the Persian army and little city-states support Persia for protection. Athens positioned themselves into a naval battle and forced Persia into the water passage ways around the island of Salimis. Persia is unable to these narrow passages. Athens was victorious due to their strategy.
Athens becomes the leader of the Delian League, grew very wealthy, and built a mini-Greek empire.
Socrates was a Peloponesian War veteran. He focused on individual action, told them to question how can they do better. He chalenged authority and was a critic of the Sophists. His method was to teach by questioning, he did not write down any of his teachings. He was later put on trial for "corrupting Athens' youth," he was killed by poison.
The Olympics represented the ideal of a strong, healthy man. These games began to occur every four years. If a war was occuring and Olympics came up, the war was stopped for a temporary truce.
Pericles was an honorable statesman who was a soilder in the Persian War. He strengthened Athens' democracy, increased the number of paid public officials, and strengthened the idea of a direct democracy. Moved the Delian League headquarters to Athens. He taxed other city-states in the Delian League to beautify Athens.
During this time Athens developed artistic and literate supremacy. Athens developed a strong democratic government, led by Pericles.
Athens want to defend its leadership from Sparta who is angry at Athenian power. This war begins in 430 B.C.with a plague that kills 1/3 of the Athenian population. In 429 B.C. Pericles dies. 430-421 B.C. there is ongoing fighting between Sparta and Athens. In 421 B.C. there is a temporary truce. In 415 B.C> Athens invades Syracuse, Silicy. In 413 B.C. Sparta is victorious in saving Syracuse. From 413 B.C. to 404 B.C. there is ongoing fighting between Sparta and Athens. This war ends in 404 B.C. with Athens surrendering to Sparta and loosing its power, wealth, and the Delian League.
Plato was a student of Socrates. He wrote down Socrates' teachings in dialogue form. He focussed on collective action, your faults and others' faults. He was a critic of democracy, in his book, The Rebublic, he desribes a new government type that has a philosopher as king, the next social class was the educated people, and the third were the regular citizens. His school was The Academy, he teaches Aristotle here.
Aristotle was a brillian student of Plato's. He applied logic to science, the scientific method. Syllogism is if A=B, and B=C, then A=C. His school was the Lyccum. He taught Alexander the Great.
This invasion weakened the city-states and the ity-states eventually give in to Philip II. This results in a change of government, they are then ruled by a single monarch king.
Alexander began ruthless invasions soon after his father, Philip II's, death. He invaded and conquered both Persia and Egypt. His attempt to conquer the Indus Valley was unsuccessful and on the journey back home he died, at age 32.
Alexandria, the capital of Alexander's empire, became the capital of the Helenistic world. Helenism was the new shared culture of Greece, Persia, and India.