Move to Global War

By: Hannah Kloetzer

Stalin/USSR

New Economic Policy

1921 - 1928

Lenin's Economic Plan to all limited small-business in the USSR after Russian Civil War. Stalin used the NEP to isolate and eliminate Trotsky, Kamenev, Zinoview, and eventually Bukharin.

Collectivization

1927 - 1932

USSR's confiscation of land from individuals in order to create large collective farms owned by the state

1st Five Year Plan

1928 - 1932

USSR's first plan that set quotas for production in various sectors of the economy (i.e. steal, coal, and oil). This was an attempt to industrialize the USSR.

Kirov Assassinated

1934

Kirov gets shot by an assassin after an anti-party group was created, with Kirov leading the way. He eventually gets more votes than Stalin which prompts his assassination.

Trial of 16

1936

One of Stalin's many attempts to eliminate his opposition. Zinoviev and Kamenev as well as 14 others were arrested for the assassination of Kirov. They initially said they didn't do it, but after some questioning, their story changed. Zinoviev and Kamenev got executed shortly after

Tukhachevsky Affair

1937

Stalin's chance to go after the army members who are against him (in court

Trial of 17

1937

Where Stalin killed off Trotsky and all of his major allies

Trial of 21

1938

Where Stalin killed off Bukharin and other Trotskyists

Hitler/Germany

Ruhr Crisis

1923 - 1925

When France invaded the Ruhr Region after the Weimar Republic had not paid their reparation payments from the Treaty of Versailles

Hitler gets appointed Chancellor of Germany

1932

After the November 1932 Elections, President Paul von Hindenburg agrees to appoint Hitler chancellor (speaker of the house and reps-->sets program for the Reichstag)-->puts him in a position of power

July 1932 Elections

1932

The Nazis receive 13 million votes. They make up 37% of the Reichstag: the largest political party

Enabling Acts Passed

1933

Hitler lobbies the Reichstag to pass an Enabling Act: give the Chancellor power to enact laws without the Reichstag

Reichstag Fire

Feb 27 1933

The Reichstag was set on fire. A Dutch communist was arrested for arson

Article 48 Revoked

Feb 28 1933

under pressure from Hitler, Hindenburg invokes Article 48:
-no habeas corpus (arrest without trial)
-restrictions on:
-Freedom of Expression
-Freedom of the Press
-Freedom of Association
-Freedom of Public Assembly
-Freedom of the Secrecy of the Post and Telephone

Night of Long Knives

June 1934

Fearing that the paramilitary SA had become too powerful, Hitler ordered his elite SS guards to murder the organization's leaders, including Ernst Röhm.

German Rearmament

1935

Includes:
-Conscription
-construction of 2,500 aircraft
-expansion of navy
-mass production of guns, tanks, artillery, etc.

Four Year Plan

1935 - 1939

Hitler's plan for Wehrwirtschaft: defense economy
-As part of Wehrwirtschaft, Hitler sought to impose autarky (self-sufficiency)
Key Features of the Four Year Plan:
-It was meant to be accomplished over FOUR YEARS
-develop synthetic materials to minimize imports--> artificial rubber
-Emphasis on chemical industry and synthetic fuels
-Develop steelworks, using German iron ore (Which was, IRONically less pure)
-Emphasis on heavy machinery
-Targets for productions were to be set at the national level

German remilitarization of the Rhineland

1936

because they wanted to :)

German annexation of Austria

1938

Create Greater Germany!!

Munich Conference

September 29, 1938

Essentially a failed act of appeasement of Germany. Great Britain, France, and Italy agreed to allow Germany to annex certain areas of Czechoslovakia.

German occupation of Czechoslovakia

March 1939

Nazi-Soviet Pact (Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact)

August 23, 1939

A neutrality pact between USSR and Nazi Germany

Mussolini/Italy

Treaty of London

1915

Treaty between Italy and the Allies during WW1 that promised the Dalmation Coast to Italy if Italy joined the Allies

Mussolini named prime minister of Italy

1922 - 1943

King Victor Emmanuel III names Mussolini Prime Minister

Italian invasion of Ethiopia

1935 - 1936

Italy invades Ethiopia as an attempt to expand their land in Africa

Italy expelled from League of Nations

1937

Italy withdrew from the League of Nations in order to focus on building up their own country-->they did not want to compromise with these people because of what happened with the Treaty of Versailles

Rome-Berlin Axis (“Pact of Steel”)

1939

Coalition between Italy and Germany that was confirmed in 1939

Franco/Spain

Foundation of Second Spanish Republic

1931 - 1939

Promoted the separation of church and state and agrarian reform (8 hour workdays, local laboruse, etc.) . Made the traditionalists and monarchists very angry

Launch of Coup against the Republic

1936

The Africanistas form a group, led by Franco, in order to fight the Popular Front

Election of 1936

1936

Popular Front: 4.6 Million
Right Wing parties: 4.5 Million

Seats in parliament:
Popular Front: 278 seats
Right Wing- Parties: 124 seats

Assassination of Sotelo

1936

July 1936: Assassinations of Jose Calvo Sotelo: opposition leader by members of the PSOE (member of Falange). (Right Wing)

Formation of Popular Front

1936

-In advance of the elections, political party of the Center-Left to run on a common platform
-Continues agrarian reform
-Catalan autonomy

Bombing of Guernica

April 1937

Aerial bombing of the Basque town of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War, because Basques are viewed as "second class citizens" and Germans wanted to instill fear in citizens

End of Spanish Civil War

April 1939

The War ends in April 1939 when the Nationalists take over Madrid

Other

Treaty of Versailles

June 1919

Officially ended WW1. Basically blamed Germany for the War and stripped them of all their powers

Washington Disarmament Conference

1921 - 1922

Conference in DC to get all major powers to disarm in order to prevent another World War

Dawes Plan

1924

Was an attempt in 1924 to solve the World War I reparations problem, which had bedeviled international politics following World War I and the Treaty of Versailles.

Dawes Act

1925

series of agreements whereby Germany, France, Belgium, Great Britain, and Italy mutually guaranteed peace in western Europe

Young Plan

1929

Second renegotiation of Germany's World War I reparation payments. A new committee, chaired by the American Owen D. Young, met in Paris on Feb. 11, 1929, to revise the Dawes Plan of 1924. Its report

Stock Market Crash - beginning of Great Depression

1929

Stock Market crashed :(

Geneva Disarmament Conference

1932 - 1934

An effort for the League of Nations and the US to disarm globally

Election of FDR

1932

New Deal

1933 - 1938

FDR's plan to get the US out of the Great Depression. Programs under the New Deal helped create jobs and create social security and other benefits for workers.

Japan

First Sino-Japanese War

1894 - 1895

Essentially a war between China and Japan over Korea. End Result: Granted Korea full independence from China; Gave Taiwan and the Liaodong Peninsula to Japan; Required China to pay a lot of silver to Japan; Allowed Japanese ships to operate on the Yangtze River and to have Chinese ports open to Japanese imports (Treaty of Shimonoseki)

Anglo-Japanese Alliance

1902

An alliance between Britain and Japan stating that they would aid each other militarily if either was at war with two or more countries. Furthermore, if wither country was at war with only one other state, then the other would remain neutral.

Ruso-Japanese War

1904 - 1905

The Russo-Japanese War was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea. Japan won the war. Ended in the Treaty of Portsmouth which stated that Russia and Japan needed to remove troops from Manchuria and give it back to China

Treaty of Portsmouth

1905

Treaty between Russia and Japan that ended the Ruso-Japanese War. The treaty:
-required both Russia and Japan to remove all troops from Manchuria and restore it to China's control
-allowed Japan to lease the Liadong Peninsula and Port Arthur from China
-granted Japan the right to lease the Russian-built Southern Manchurin Railway from China
-granted Japan the southern half of the Sakhalin Island

21 Demands

1915

"The 21 Demands were a set of demands made during the First World War by the Empire of Japan under Prime Minister Ōkuma Shigenobu sent to the government of the Republic of China. The demands would greatly extend Japanese control of Manchuria and of the Chinese economy, and were opposed by Britain and the United States. In the final settlement Japan gained a little but lost a great deal of prestige and trust in Britain and the US."

Lytton Commision

1931

A commision formed by the League to investigate the Mukden incident and Japan's occupation

Japanese Invasion of Manchuria

1931 - 1932

After the Manchurian incident, the Kwantung Army took this excuse to invade and occupy all of Manchuria

Establishment of Manchukuo

1932

Manchukuo became its own independent state that was headed by the last emperor of China

Japanese withdrawal from the League of Nations

1933

When the League's general assembly voted to condemn Japan as an aggressor nation for their role in the invasion of Manchuria, Japan left the league with no consequences

Japanese attack Shanghai

1937

Battle between Japan and China. One of the bloodiest battles ever

Japanese attack Nanjing

1937

The Nanking Massacre was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (then spelled Nanking), then the capital of the Republic of China during the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Japanese occupation of Indochina

September 1940

Hull Note

November 26, 1941

Officially the Outline of Proposed Basis for Agreement Between the United States and Japan, was the final proposal delivered to the Empire of Japan by the United States before the attack on Pearl Harbor and the declaration of war between the two nations

Pearl Harbor

December 7, 1941

Cold War

House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)

1938 - 1975

a committee (1938–75) of theU.S. House of Representatives, created to investigate disloyalty and subversive organizations. Its first chairman, Martin Dies, set the pattern for its anti-Communist investigations.

Yalta Conference

February 1945

the second wartime meeting of Churchill, Stalin, and Roosevelt. The leaders agreed to demand Germany’s surrender and began plans for a post-war world. Stalin also agreed to permit free elections in Eastern Europe and to enter the Asian war against Japan.

Postdam Conference

July 1945

the last meeting of the “Big Three” (Churchill, Stalin, and Truman). They established a Council of Foreign Ministers and a central Allied Control Council for administration of Germany. They also issued a declaration demanding “unconditional surrender” from Japan.

Salami Tactics

1946 - 1948

the Soviet’s “divide and conquer” process of threats/alliances used to establish communist governments in Eastern Europe after WWII.

The Long Telegram

Feb 1946

George Kennan, the American charge d'affaires in Moscow, sends a telegram to the US detailing his views on the USSR, and U.S. policy of containment.

Iron Curtain Speech

March 1946

former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill condemns the Soviet Union's policies in Europe and declares, “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent.”

Chinese Civil War

1947 - 1950

fought between forces loyal to the Kuomintang-led government of the Republic of China, and forces loyal to the Communist Party of China

Truman Doctrine

1947

Committed the US to protection and reconstruction of Western Europe

Berlin Blockade/Airlift

June 1948 - May 1949

US/UK decide to supply west Berlin by air (200,000 flights in 320 days & 8,000 tons of food, raw materials, fuel per day). Permanent division of Germany into West and East

Marshall Plan

June 1948

US $17 billion aid package to rebuild Western Europe and safeguard US economy.

Formation of NATO

April 1949

an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. There were 12 founding members: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States.

Korean War

1950 - 1953

Proxy war between US and USSR and China over the borders of North and South Korea

McCarthyism

1950 - 1959

is the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence. McCarthy accused many people in the 50’s of being communist

NSC-68

April 1950

58-page top secret policy paper by the United States National Security Council presented to President Harry S. Truman on April 14, 1950. It was one of the most important statements of American policy that launched the Cold War. In result, US hyped up their military budget

Election of Eisenhower

1952 - 1960

Death of Stalin

March 1953

Overthrow of Arbenz

1954

When the US overthrew the democratically elected leader of Guatemala, Arbenz, because they thought he was communist (He was not...only supported by commies)

SEATO

1954

In September of 1954, the United States, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, Australia, the Philippines, Thailand and Pakistan formed the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, or SEATO. SEATO Meeting in Manila. The purpose of the organization was to prevent communism from gaining ground in the region.

Austrian State Treaty

1955

Re-established Austria as a soverign state....free from communist control

Formation of Warsaw Pact

May 1955

The Warsaw Pact was a collective defence treaty among the Soviet Union and seven other Soviet satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.

Secret Speech to 20th Party Congress

Feb 1956

The 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was held during 14–25 February 1956. It is known especially for Nikita Khrushchev's "Secret Speech", which denounced the personality cult and dictatorship of Joseph Stalin.

Uprising in Hungary

October 1956 - November 1956

was a nationwide revolt against the government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies

Sputnik

October 1957

The first satellite into space---by the USSR

Great Leap Forward

1958 - 1962

was an economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China
-included collective agriculture and other things that tanked China's economy

NASA

July 1958

National Aeronautics and Space Administration
-helped boost and emphasize the development of cool technology for space (Keeping up with the USSR!)
-Eisenhower was prezzzz at the time

U-2 incident (shooting down of Francis Gary Powers)

1960

A US spy plane was shot down in the USSR. Eishenhower was like it was a weather plane!!! Krushchev was like you are lying we know what Francis was doing (spying)

Election of JFK

1960 - 1963