Harsh to Christians:
greek historian on Constantine's vision
Harsh to Christians:
Arius, bishop of Alexandria, argued that Jesus was created by God and is not the same as God. This view divided Christians all over the Roman Empire.
traveled with chaste women and founded monasteries
He used to be an unclean man but converted. This influential church father complained that people used to risk persecution because they wanted to become Christian so much, but now they converted only to impress the rich and powerful.
wrote 'city of god' and 'confessions
Confronted Gothic troops, where he and Roman army was killed. Roman Empire is not invincible.
Ambrose, the bishop of Milan, Italy, challenged the emperor's power.
In 390 BCE:
- excommunicated Emperor Theodosius for massacring rebellious citizens, forbidding him to participate in church services until he repented
- Theodosius followed Ambrose's commands so he could attend church again
He forbid the public worship of the old Roman cults and made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire. Those who remained loyal to traditional Roman religious beliefs were called pagans.
Nero persecuted the Roman Christians (possibly including apostles Peter and Paul), blaming them for a huge fire in Rome instead of himself.
Catacombs were dug under Roman cities to bury dead Christians, who expected their bodies to be resurrected, instead of the former Roman belief that dead bodies were worthless.
Christians met publicly in luxurious churches instead of underground in catacombs.
Emperor Constantine ended the persecution of Christians when he issued the Edict of Milan, tolerating all religions of the Roman Empire.
Jesus was created by God, they are not the same.
live in suffering, convinced its purity and will give them a better afterlife and connect with god. torture themselves for holy life
OR withdraw to worship god in peace away from society simple
are god and christ the same? yes (Constantine and bishops)
by Augustine trying to address new complexities of religious and state-involved christianity
Visigoths settled in empire to become allies. Romans treated them badly. Latifundia became self-sufficient and had little to do with capital (Constantinople).
Emperor Honorius fled from invading Visigoths to Ravenna, made it capital because it was easily defendable behind marshes. Rome was plundered by Visigoths. Romans fled to Africa and the East.
so many invasions by northerners/germanic tribes (visigoths)
reliance on slave labor
Vision: "In this sign, conquer." He converts to Christianity.
He disbanded the praetorian guards.
313: He issued the Edict of MIlan, tolerating all religions of the Roman empire. Christian martyrdoms ended.
330: Built capital Constantinople on old Byzantium. Easily defended, located along eastern trade routes.
Supported the Christian church:
- returned property to prosecuted Christians
- gave tax advantages to Christian priests
- let Christian advisors into his court's inner circle
- built beautiful churches
- restored the Holy Places at Jerusalem and Palestine, including where Jesus was born and died (Helena located them)
- Christians made pilgrimages to Jerusalem
Constantine withdrew support for traditional pagan shrines, confiscated their gold, and standardized currency.