Apec

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Peace of Lodi

1454

Alliance system in Italy.

War of the Roses

1455 - 1485

Between house of Lancaster and house of York over crown (Britain).

Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon get married

1469

Christopher Columbus lands in the Caribbean

1492

Funded by Spanish monarchs; aims to find spices and gold in Asia. (doesn't)

Vasco da Gama reaches India

1498

He does that, by going around Africa; spice trade to the east by sea begins

The Handbook of the Christian Knight

1503

By Erasmus printed in 1503

The Prince

1513

Machiavelli. Leaders should inspire fear to end politcal instability and to cause moral regeneration.

Luther is excommunicated from the Church

1521

The Book of the Courtier by Baldassare Castiglione

1528

Diet of Augsburg

1530

Charles V tries to settle the Lutheran problem at the Diet of Augsburg and he was unsuccessful.

Francisco Pizarro lands on Pacific coast of South America

1530

Copernicus publishes his argument for heliocentric

1543

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Reforms bishop and priest conduct, reaffirms catholic doctrine: papal authority, seven scraments, power of good works, celibacy of clergy

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572

Thousands of Huguenots killed in France (Paris). More resistance to Catholic rule.

Montaigne writes his essays

1580

Self knowledge to tunderstand the world.

Edict of Nantes

1598

Catholicism is the official religion of France and the Huguenots right to worship.

The foundation of the Exchange Bank of Amsterdam

1609

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Dialogue

1632

Galileo published his most famous work..

English Royal Society

1662

King Charles II grants a charter to them,

Edict of Fontaineblau

1685

Louis XIV destorys Huguenot churches and closes their schools.

Great Northern War

1700 - 1721

Peace of Utrecht

1713

Ends the Spanich Succession War.

Hanoverian Dynasty comes to power in Britian

1714

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

The Cotton/Textile industry

1770 - 1780

In the 1770s and the 1780s, the cotton/textile industry took the first major step toward the Industrial revolution with the creation of the factory.

Spain and France demand end of Jesuits

1773

Pope Clement XIV comply. Decline papal power followed.

Toleration patent

1781

Jospeh II of Austria. Non-Catholics right to worship privately.

William Pitt the Elder as prime minister (England)

1783

Kant defines englightment

1784

Man's leaving his self cause immaturity.

constituent Assembly

1789 - 1791

wrote new constitution to destroy old order

Declaration of Philnitz

1791

Leopold II of Austria and Frederick william II of Prussia issued the Declaration of Philnitz. which invited other European monarchs to take "the most effectual means.. to put the king of France in a state of well being, in most perfect liberty..."

Napoleon dominated both French and European History

1799 - 1815

First Census

1801

In Britain the first census was taken in 1801. A systematic registration of births, deaths, and marriages was begun in 1836.

Bourbon Family restored in France

1814

Louis XVIII

Reaffirmation of Quadruple Alliance

1815

Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria

The Greek Revolt

1821 - 1832

Principle of intervention was a double-edge sword. (supported the revolution)

Photography was invented

1830

Communist Manifesto

1848

The Crimean War

1854 - 1856

Garibaldi landed in Sicily

1860

New Spanish Constitution

1875

New constitution under KingAlfonso XII. Made a parliamentery government dominated by liberals and conservatives

Balkan states of Serbia and Mantenegro declare war on Ottoman Empire

1876

Europe's First Birth control Clinic

1882

Dr. Aletta Jacob (founder)

Evolutionary Socialism

1899

Bernstein challenged Marxist orthodoxy

The Interpretation of Dreams

1900

Frued's book contained the basic foundation of psychoanalysis

German offensive at Verdun

1916

US brought into WW1

1917

The Treaty of Brest- Litovsic

1918

The new communist government in Russia gave up the lands in eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland and the Baltic provinces.

Mussolini came to power

1924

Great Depression

1929

Two factors: collapse of US stock market, and downturn in domestic economies.

Mussolini commits to imperial expansion

1935

Mussolini had committed Facist Italy to imperial expansion by invading Ethiopia.

Kristallnacht (the night of broken glass)

1938

Hitler annexed Austria to Germany.

1938

German forces invade Poland

1939

Victory of Chinese Communists.

1949

US became involved in the Korean War

1950

Cuban Missile Crisis

1962

Gorbachev comes to power in the USSR

1985

Soviet nuclear diaster at Chernobly

1986

Re-unification of Germany

1990