Alliance system in Italy.
Between house of Lancaster and house of York over crown (Britain).
Funded by Spanish monarchs; aims to find spices and gold in Asia. (doesn't)
He does that, by going around Africa; spice trade to the east by sea begins
By Erasmus printed in 1503
Machiavelli. Leaders should inspire fear to end politcal instability and to cause moral regeneration.
Charles V tries to settle the Lutheran problem at the Diet of Augsburg and he was unsuccessful.
Reforms bishop and priest conduct, reaffirms catholic doctrine: papal authority, seven scraments, power of good works, celibacy of clergy
Thousands of Huguenots killed in France (Paris). More resistance to Catholic rule.
Self knowledge to tunderstand the world.
Catholicism is the official religion of France and the Huguenots right to worship.
Galileo published his most famous work..
King Charles II grants a charter to them,
Louis XIV destorys Huguenot churches and closes their schools.
Ends the Spanich Succession War.
In the 1770s and the 1780s, the cotton/textile industry took the first major step toward the Industrial revolution with the creation of the factory.
Pope Clement XIV comply. Decline papal power followed.
Jospeh II of Austria. Non-Catholics right to worship privately.
Man's leaving his self cause immaturity.
wrote new constitution to destroy old order
Leopold II of Austria and Frederick william II of Prussia issued the Declaration of Philnitz. which invited other European monarchs to take "the most effectual means.. to put the king of France in a state of well being, in most perfect liberty..."
In Britain the first census was taken in 1801. A systematic registration of births, deaths, and marriages was begun in 1836.
Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria
Principle of intervention was a double-edge sword. (supported the revolution)
New constitution under KingAlfonso XII. Made a parliamentery government dominated by liberals and conservatives
Dr. Aletta Jacob (founder)
Bernstein challenged Marxist orthodoxy
Frued's book contained the basic foundation of psychoanalysis
The new communist government in Russia gave up the lands in eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland and the Baltic provinces.
Two factors: collapse of US stock market, and downturn in domestic economies.
Mussolini had committed Facist Italy to imperial expansion by invading Ethiopia.