Between house of Lancaster and house of York over crown (Britain).
Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon get married
Christopher Columbus lands in the Caribbean
Funded by Spanish monarchs; aims to find spices and gold in Asia. (doesn't)
Vasco da Gama reaches India
He does that, by going around Africa; spice trade to the east by sea begins
The Handbook of the Christian Knight
By Erasmus printed in 1503
Machiavelli. Leaders should inspire fear to end politcal instability and to cause moral regeneration.
Luther is excommunicated from the Church
The Book of the Courtier by Baldassare Castiglione
Diet of Augsburg
Charles V tries to settle the Lutheran problem at the Diet of Augsburg and he was unsuccessful.
Francisco Pizarro lands on Pacific coast of South America
Copernicus publishes his argument for heliocentric
Council of Trent
1545 - 1563
Reforms bishop and priest conduct, reaffirms catholic doctrine: papal authority, seven scraments, power of good works, celibacy of clergy
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Thousands of Huguenots killed in France (Paris). More resistance to Catholic rule.
Montaigne writes his essays
Self knowledge to tunderstand the world.
Edict of Nantes
Catholicism is the official religion of France and the Huguenots right to worship.
The foundation of the Exchange Bank of Amsterdam
Thirty Years War
1618 - 1648
Galileo published his most famous work..
English Royal Society
King Charles II grants a charter to them,
Edict of Fontaineblau
Louis XIV destorys Huguenot churches and closes their schools.
Great Northern War
1700 - 1721
Peace of Utrecht
Ends the Spanich Succession War.
Hanoverian Dynasty comes to power in Britian
Seven Years War
1756 - 1763
The Cotton/Textile industry
1770 - 1780
In the 1770s and the 1780s, the cotton/textile industry took the first major step toward the Industrial revolution with the creation of the factory.
Spain and France demand end of Jesuits
Pope Clement XIV comply. Decline papal power followed.
Jospeh II of Austria. Non-Catholics right to worship privately.
William Pitt the Elder as prime minister (England)
Kant defines englightment
Man's leaving his self cause immaturity.
1789 - 1791
wrote new constitution to destroy old order
Declaration of Philnitz
Leopold II of Austria and Frederick william II of Prussia issued the Declaration of Philnitz. which invited other European monarchs to take "the most effectual means.. to put the king of France in a state of well being, in most perfect liberty..."
Napoleon dominated both French and European History
1799 - 1815
In Britain the first census was taken in 1801. A systematic registration of births, deaths, and marriages was begun in 1836.
Bourbon Family restored in France
Reaffirmation of Quadruple Alliance
Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria
The Greek Revolt
1821 - 1832
Principle of intervention was a double-edge sword. (supported the revolution)
Photography was invented
The Crimean War
1854 - 1856
Garibaldi landed in Sicily
New Spanish Constitution
New constitution under KingAlfonso XII. Made a parliamentery government dominated by liberals and conservatives
Balkan states of Serbia and Mantenegro declare war on Ottoman Empire
Europe's First Birth control Clinic
Dr. Aletta Jacob (founder)
Bernstein challenged Marxist orthodoxy
The Interpretation of Dreams
Frued's book contained the basic foundation of psychoanalysis
German offensive at Verdun
US brought into WW1
The Treaty of Brest- Litovsic
The new communist government in Russia gave up the lands in eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland and the Baltic provinces.
Mussolini came to power
Two factors: collapse of US stock market, and downturn in domestic economies.
Mussolini commits to imperial expansion
Mussolini had committed Facist Italy to imperial expansion by invading Ethiopia.