Mathieu Orfila developed the science of modern toxicology, through his book Traite des Poisons, the examination of foodstuff and corpses for poison content. He was also the first to utilize a microscope to examine stains of blood and semen.
James Marsh, a chemist, was called in for the prosecution of a murder trial by a man named John Bodle, who had been accused of poisoning by arsenic-laced coffee. He developed a test for detecting arsenic, using ‘The Marsh Test’.
Arthur Conan Doyle
Arthur Conan Doyle began his release of a four-part series ‘Sherlock Homes’, which had a large influence in forensic science due to his character's use of methods such as fingerprints, serology, ciphers, trace evidence, and footprints long before they were commonly used by actual police forces.
Alphonse Bertillon provided a system of identification to be used on criminals, which comprised of using standardized data such as bodily measurements, color of eyes, hair and skin to determine an approximate appearance. This was named Photography: With an Appendix on Anthropometrical Classification and Identification, later dubbed the Bertillon system.
1892 - 1895
Francis Galton devised the first workable fingerprint classification system, using his studies of minutiae in prints to provide statistical evidence for uniqueness of individual prints. This was further developed in his two major works on the use of fingerprints in forensic investigations.
Hans Gross published Handbuch für Untersuchungsrichter, which helped to establish the science of forensics, especially in terms of a cross-transfer of evidence, such as dirt, fingerprints, carpet fibres, or hair.
Leon Lattes was an Italian scientist who was a professor at the institute of Forensic Medicine in Turin Italy. Lattes’ most prominent discovery was the use of a saline solution to restore dried blood into its original state in order to classify the blood type, this procedure is still used to this day. He also published a book based on clinical issues, heritability, paternity and grouping restored blood stains.
Calvin Goddard developed the term ‘Forensic Ballistics’, the science based on firearms and projectiles. He wrote an article on the use of comparison microscope with regards to firearms investigations, and later established the Bureau of Foreign Ballistics in New York City to provide identification services (for America).
Edmond Locard’s most prominent work is the formulation of Locard’s Exchange Principle (transfer of trace evidence between objects, ‘every contact leaves a trace’). He also had many contributions to dactylography and poroscopy (study of fingerprints and pores).
Walter McCrone was an American chemist who was a leading expert in microscopy. He was extremely well known for his work in the Shroud of Turin, the Vinland map and contributions to forensic science. He is the founder of the McCrone Research Institute, an organization that teaches and researches microscopy and crystallography. He wrote more than 600 technical articles and sixteen books in microscopy. He also expanded the use of microscopes to chemists, which had previously been used by biologists exclusively.