Brown v . Board of Education of Topeka was a landmark 1954 Supreme Court case in which the justices rules unanimously that racial segregation of children in public school was unconstitutional. Board of Education was a major cornerstone of the Civil Rights Movement, and helped establish the whole " Separate but Equal "education and other services were not, in fact, equal at all. Though the Supreme Court's decision in Brown v . Board didn't achieve schools desegregation on its own, the ruling fueled the nascent civil rights movement in the united states. Today, the debate continues over how to combat racial inequalities in the nation's school system, largely based on residential patterns and differences in resources between schools and economically disadvantaged district across the country.