Greek philosophers are among the first to study ________(relates to psychology).
Plato espoused nativism, which is _.
Aristotle espoused philosophical empiricism, which is ____.
French philosophers attempted to connect the brain to the mind.
Rene Descartes believed in dualism, which is ___. He believed that the mind situates at _.
Franz Joseph Gall believed that the brain and the mind are connected by size. He invented phrenology, which is __.
Marie Jean Pierre Flourens surgically removed parts of the brain from animals and found functional differences between these animals and animals with intact brains: the mind is grounded in a material substance, the brain. His thinking was linked to monism, which is ___.
Paul Broca worked with patients with brain damage and found Broca's area: the mind is grounded in a material substance, the brain. His thinking was also linked to monism.
Physiologists started to apply their research methods in studying the mind, bringing up structuralism:
Hermann von Helmholtz measured the response speed. He proposed that neurological structures underlying human behaviors can be studied separately.
Wilhelm Wundt, Helmholtz's research assistant, analyzed consciousness by breaking it down to ________. His method was called __, in which _______(what subjects should do?). His methodology signified the emergence of structuralism.
Titchener brought structuralism to America from Leipzig, where Wundt did his research.
Functionalism studied mental processes by looking at the functions that they afford:
William James, inspired by Charles Darwin's principles of natural selection, which is ____________, proposed that every human mental process is designed to __________.