History II Midterm



courtly opera vs. public opera

1600 - 1700

early 17th century vs. mid 17th century
serious vs. serious and comic
much chorus and orchestra vs. little chorus and orchestra
machinery/elaborate sets vs. NO machinery/ elaborate sets
characters: mythical vs. historical
heroes: strong vs. realistic
audience: aristocracy vs. businessmen
only performed once vs. held during carnival only

Jacopo Peri


composer, singer->florentine, camerata

wrote Euridice

one should imitate in song a person speaking
bass moving at human speech
stressed endings w/ consonant bass entrance

stile rappresentativo


dramatic, theatrical style; somewhere between song and declaimed speech.
singer emphatically declaims text so that pitches and rhythms of voice match rhythms, accents, and inflections of text
accented/longer syllables of speech receive longer notes. Other syllables are hurried, as in speech, with quicker rhythms

Caccini: Filli, mirando el cielo
Perio: Funeste Piaggi

Renaissance vs. Baroque


voice the ideal vs. insturmental music
voice used in ensemble vs. solo voice
a capella vs. accompanied voices (basso)
natural, simple vs. exaggerated
modal harmony vs. tonal functional harmony
music for church and chamber msuic for theater, church, chamber
word painting vs music expresses affection
polyphony vs homophony
horizontal (line driven vs. vertical chordal)

3 important changes
1)freer use of idissonances
2) functional harmony, teleological->away from modal
3) treble/bass polyphony->top line and bottom line
4) text and music->seconda practica



arioso: monody, halfway between aria and recit
fewere repeated pitches than recit and more rhythmically elastic
melodious récit, w/ rhythmic repetition and melodic sequence
not as song-like/expressive as aria
example: tu se' morta, mia vita

possente spirto


powerful spriti
ABA, BCB etc
strophic variation aria
like a spell
strophic aria
strophic variation aria=ritornello



repeated strain of music that the instruments play-> sets apart what orfeus is saying->but also provides repetition
each time you have different instruments but similar music



expressive song, can be strophic (=strophic aria)
florid, expansive, melodious
used for moments of intense personal expression and reflection
Monteverdi's Possente spirto

stile concertato


concerto=ensemble of various instruments and voices
or the composition for such an ensemble
concertare=to unite something that is heterogeneous->cooperate through music->diverse instruments

cori spezzati


broken choir/multiple choir
poly choral=mult choirs
broke them into strategic spaces
surround sound

prelude toccata/ elevation toccata


start the mass
figuration played in middle and lower voices
more tonal

moment of transubstantiation
solemn and miraculous
chromatic toccatas
unnatural progression->leading tone turns around and descends by half steps each time->progressing the hard way down.

L'incoronazione di poppa


public opera
performed at teatro san cassiano
3 acts
seneca->speaks voice of virtue




death of euridice, venus tells orpheus to go into underworld. happy return of euridice and orpheus
lieto fine=happy enidn
gfavola pastorale=pastoral play

wedding of maria de medici to henry iv

Funeste piagge=deadly shores
stile rappresentativo=irregular lengths of text=speaking
horrors of the underworld
slow bass->static quality->tiime has stopped

Giacomo Carissimi

1605 - 1674

Director of German College in rome
wrote oratorios->Jepthe

stile recitativo


solo w/basso continuo
used to deliver narration
quick rhythm
moves story along
different from rappresantativo because it narrates
Monteverdi: Orfeo: A l'amara novella

Toccata to Monteverdi's Orfeo


perform elaborately
for trumpets->5 trumpet parts
repeats 3 times
drone in 2 lowest parts
flourished (military) in upper 3 parts
muted->transpose it to d

Claudio Monteverdi


Conzaga family=chief musician
in charge of all ducal music
privately in a small room->orfeo
9 men sang castrato male

wedding, death, crossing over, bargain and second loss of euridice, apotheosis of orfeo

mor instruments->all different sounds
hades=trombones, instruments for color

In eccleseiis benedicte domino


By Gabrieli
in concerted style

Dietrich Buxtehude

1637 - 1707

lubeck-based composer and organist at St. Mary's key contabulation
northern german organ prelude and choral fantasia
Wie schon leuchtet der Morgenstern

stilos fantasticus->using imaginaition and drammatic surprises
showing virtuosity/imitative counterpoint

Hor che'l ciel e la terra


monteverdi published 8 madrigals
concertato madrical->relationship between voice and instruments
madrigals warlike and amorous
sile concitato=agitated style

chant, rectitation, chords static,
but then concitato

stile concitato


agitated style
agitated, soft, moderate
war-like->creating whole new style
speaking of man engaged in war
a lot of repeated notes w/ instrument=beginning of tremolo



sacred text (biblical) that is set to music
dramaticizing of the bible
taking theatrical techniques of opera and setting them to religious music
borrowing recitative, aria, choruses, dance music
merging secular and sacred
italian text=oratorio vulgar) or latin text (oratorio latino)
permitted religious opera

Heinrich Biber

1644 - 1704

leading figure in violin msuic
kapellmeister in salzburg
mystery sonatas-weird tuning



led israelites into battle
pledge to kill who he meets first at home
kills daughter
she sings laments

Suite No. 6 in C major


By JOhann Froberger=from vienna
French Dance Music
Allemande->slow 4/4, improvisatory style, arpeggios, dissonant
Courante->fast triple meter, hemiolas near the end
saraband->emphasis on upper melodic line=thick chord progressions and siompler in meter and rhythm than gigue
gigue->fugal technique (fugato), compound triple meter, complex rhythmically.

Wie Schon leuchtet der Morgenstern: North Vs. South


Buxtehude vs. Pachelbel
fantasia vs. prelude
northern=stilos fantasticus=using imagination and drammatic surprises
buxtehude=improvisatory and show-off
pachelbel=more tuneful


Johann Froberger

1616 - 1676

outstanding courtly keyboard (suite and toccata) composer
17th century vienna

wrote Suite No. 6 in C major

Barbara Strozzi

1619 - 1677

probably a prostitue
powerful father
concerto della donna.
woman composer
composed "l'amante secreto"



organist at St. Petersburg
music of the unknowable
toccata->perform it like its a madrigal much more expressive
fiori musicali- music designed for specific masses
musical flowers
toccata prelude then kyrie in alternatim
parts of mass then organ
organ mass=alternates w/choir
toccata->show of skill of instrumentalists->scales, trills, ornaments w/chords

Heinrich Schutz


Wrote Saul, Saul, was verfolgst du mich?"
30 yrs war
obligato instruments=obligatory instruments
startled by sudden light->why do you persecute me? story of conversion
6 favoriti (6 solo voices)
only 2 lines of text->lines of christ

L'amante segreto


by Barbara Strozzi
cantata=something sung as opposed to sonata=something played
secular texts about love
out of madrigal tradition
sets several different types
basso ostinato->repeats over and over->continuity that unifies the sections

basso ostinato->repeats over and over->continuity that unifies the sections
in triple meter
scalar descending tetra chord
lament bass->descending tetrachord in basso continuo
for sadness


"Dialogue concerning Ancient and modern music"


modern music cannot move passions like ancient
music is here to express passions of the soul
true harmony and melody should break the rules
modern music is only delighting the ear, but not expressing passions of the soul
study language of different types of actors

Caccini: Le nuovo Musiche


speak musically
stile rappresantativeo: dramatic, theatrcial style; somewhere between song and declaimed speech