Armenian History

Immigration

First Armenian Immigration Wave

1890 - 1925

About 64,000 Christian Armenians came to the United States as a result of the prosecution by the Muslim Turk Government and conflicts with Azerbaijan.

Second Immigration Wave

1944 - 1989

4739 Armenians migrated to U.S, after world war 2 when they were freed from concentration camps with the help of the Displaced Persons Act of 1948 and the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965. Then, in 1956, Armenian survivors from the Armenian Genocide migrated to western countries and an estimated 77000 migrated to the U.S.

Causes

Hamidian Massacres

1894 - 1896

The Armenian Massacres in 1894-1896 were the first near-genocidal series of atrocities committed against the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire.

Armenian–Tatar massacres

1905 - 1907

The confrontation between Armenians and Azerbaijanis for ethnic differences that lead to a bloody war having casualties of 3,000-10,000 from both sides.

Adana Massacres

April 1909

A series of pogroms, violent mob attacks, happened in the city of Adana against the Armenian Christians. Deaths ranged from 15,000 to 30,000.

World War 1 (The Great War)

July 24, 1914 - November 11, 1918

In late June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist in Sarajevo, Bosnia. An escalation of threats and mobilization orders followed the incident, leading by mid-August to the outbreak of World War I, which pitted Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire (the so-called Central Powers) against Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy and Japan (the Allied Powers). The Allies were joined after 1917 by the United States. The four years of the Great War--as it was then known--saw unprecedented levels of carnage and destruction, thanks to grueling trench warfare and the introduction of modern weaponry such as machine guns, tanks and chemical weapons. By the time World War I ended in the defeat of the Central Powers in November 1918, more than 9 million soldiers had been killed and 21 million more wounded. The Treaty of Versailles, signed in 1919, determined post-war borders from Europe to the Middle East, established the League of Nations as an international peace organization and punished Germany for its aggression with reparations and the loss of territory. Tragically, the instability caused by World War I would help make possible the rise of Nazi leader Adolf Hitler and would, only two decades later, lead to a second devastating international conflict.

Armenian Genocide

1915 - 1918

The first genocide of the 20th century, occurred when two million Armenians living in Turkey were eliminated from their historic homeland through forced deportations and massacres. Casualties ranged between 1,500,000 and 2,000,000.

Short-lived Armenian Independence

May 28, 1918

Armenians gain their independence though short-lived due to the fact that the Communists and the Turks attacked and forced Armenia into Soviet Tyranny.

September Days

September 1918

During the Russian civil war, the Azerbaijanis took over Baku and killed about 10,000 to 30,000 Armenians.

Shusha Pogrom Massacre

March 1920

A conflict over land ownership in Nagobo-Karabagh, turned into a bloodbath that emptied the town of its Armenian population. Armenian Casualties ranged from 500 to 30,000.

Armenian Rebellion

1921

After being under Soviet tyranny for three years, the Armenians rebelled but it was short-lived like the Armenian Independence.

World War II

1939 - 1945

The Second Global War between two alliances, the Axis and the Allies. Fatalities ranged from 50 million to 73 million.

Instanbul Riots

1955

These were mob attacks directed to the Greek minority in Istanbul because of a fake bombing in the Turkish consulate in Greece. The Armenian population fled for fear of pursuit since they were also a minority and the government there was very unstable.

Lebanese Civil War

1975 - 1990

The civil war in Lebanon that resulted in about 120,000 casualties. This contributed to the immigration of Armenians from the middle east.

Iranian Revolution

1978 - 1979

The Pahlavi government being overthrown. Also contributed to the immigration of Armenians to the West.