Members from nine community organizations in Chicago created the Chicago Alliance for Neighborhood Safety (CANS) in 1981 to create safer neighborhoods through the application of volunteer-centered and community-based crime prevention techniques. It assisted in the formation of more than 1,500 block watches and school safety groups. At the same time, CANS initiated cooperation with the Chicago Police Department and other relevant municipal departments to reduce crime. During the course of the 1980s, it became clear to CANS and the neighborhood people it worked with that the efforts of the community and the police had to be coordinated. "The intent, even then, was for neighbors to work together with government agencies, especially the police department, for safer neighborhoods." In 1988, CANS published "Police Service in Chicago." The report outlined the time officers spent answering calls instead of proactively solving problems with the communities they served.