During the Dutch period of trading in the Gulf to about 1760, the Arabian Gulf had favored conditions for Arabian Gulf based merchants and shipping to trade long distance across the Indian Ocean. From the Russian historian Lionovich’s study of the Dutch period records, we find evidence of substantial trading profit along the Southern Arabian Gulf coast. Arab trade ships of various size made regular voyages between Basra, Bahrain, Ras al-Khaimah, Muscat, and to the Indian trade ports of Cochin. From the Dutch residency documents in Basra, we have limited but insightful evidence of relative rates of profit and amounts paid, distributed to ordinary seamen on these voyages (Lionovich). The end of the Dutch period in the 1760s also seemed to be a high water mark for Arab commercial seamen, for from the 1780s onward, increased rivalry between the growing and more aggressive British presence and internal developments in Arabia that responded to these changed conditions.