The Ottoman Empire arose from a Turkic speaking dynasty from Anatolia and Central Asia that rose to power in these regions following the end of the Crusades period and the impact of the Mongol Invasions and the Black Death or Plague that raged through Western Asia, Europe and North Africa through the 1340s. By 1452 the Ottomans had conquered the Byzantine Empire and its capital at Constantinople and renamed it as Istanbul. They soon consolidated their holdings and expanded their empire from the area of modern Turkey, into Syria, Iraq, and Palestine, and parts of the Arabian coast. They also expanded into the Balkans of Eastern Europe, across North Africa and into the Arabian Peninsula as far as Yemen.
The Ottoman Empire achieved great innovations in technical areas of science, medicine, navigation, engineering and architecture and the arts. Go through the Archnet database website link below to explore examples of its architecture.
See link below or an interactive tour of the Suleimaniye Complex in Istanbul to study how highly developed institutions of learning were associated around grand scaled mosque and garden complexes with nearby hospitals and hospices and soup kitchens for visitiors. https://archive.aramcoworld.com/issue/200605/suleymaniye/default.htm
The Ottoman Empire successfully ruled until 1922 when after World War I, the Empire was broken into modern secular states and different political divisions, some of which were controlled by British and French mandates over Syria, Palestine and Iraq.