The Revolutions of 1848

France

Barricades in Paris

February 22, 1848

Guizot's government refused to widen the suffrage, so this led to the parliamentary opposition to launch a protest movement. Government banned a banquet, and this led to barricades.

Louis Philippe abdicates, Republic proclaimed

Feb. 23, 1848

LP very sensitive to MC opinion, he held a review of his citizen militia, and when they refused to cheer him, he decided to abdicate in favor of his grandson and left for England.
Effort to preserve the dynasty was ignored, at the hotel de ville provisional government of men declared F a republic.

French Elections

April 23, 1848

Nearly 85% of eligible voters voted, gave moderate republicans the majority.

June Days insurrection

June 23, 1848 - June 26, 1848

Workers conditions didn't really approve under a republic, so workers wanted a social program like Louis Blanc's socialist nationalist workshops. To moderate republicans, these workshops presented danger and waste, and the government ordered them to be disbanded. This led to fighting.
Became the symbol of class conflicts for socialists. Cavaignac was given almost dictatorial powers and took steps to restrict the press, surpress radical societies and discipline workers.

Constitution

November 4, 1848

Louis Napoleon elected President

December 20, 1848

Habsburg Empire

Hungarian Demands

March 3, 1848

Hungary Diet cheered on Lajos Kossuth, who called for a representative government

Student Risings in Vienna

March 12, 1848

Hungary diet established free press and a national guard, abolished feudal obligations, and required nobles to pay taxes. The Hungarian example encouraged students in Vienna to demand representative governments for Austria as well.

Metternich Resigns

march 13, 1848

Liberal Legislation; Hungarian autonomy

March 15, 1848 - march 31, 1848

Censorship was abolished, a constitution was promised, and firearms were passed out to the students, and universal male suffrage was conceded.
Hungarian autonomy brought similar demands from bohemia, croatia and Transylvania

Czechs promised a constituent assembly

April 8, 1848

Emperor proclaims constitution for Austria

april 25, 1848

Vienna demonstrators demand democracy

may 15, 1848

Emperor Flees

may 17, 1848

Prague bombarded; Pan-Slav congress dissolved; military dictatorship

June 12, 1848

Assembly in Vienna adopts constitution, peasants emancipated

June 22, 1848

Austria army from Croatia invades Hungary

September 17, 1848

Vienna Bombarded, occupied

October 31, 1848

Francis Joseph, Emperor

December 2, 1848

Budapest Occupied

January 5, 1849

Austrian Reichstag dissolved, its constitution replaced

March 4, 1849

Hungary declares a Republic

april 13, 1849

Russia Invades Hungary

June 17, 1849

Hungary Capitulates

August 13, 1849

Prussia

Berlin Rising

march 15, 1848

Frederick William IV agreed to remove his troops from Berlin, and used the evocative word of "germany"

Prussian King calls Landtag

march 18, 1848 - march 21, 1848

When Frederick William IV heard about uprisings in Vienna, he relaxed censorship and called a meeting of the Landtag.

Frankfurt National Assembly Meets

May 18, 1848

830 delegates elected by universal male suffrage came together to write a constitution for all of Germany. Mostly from smaller states and liberal west, more than half of them were lawyers and professors. Great majority favored a monarchial German State with a almost democratic constitution.

Prussian Constituent Assembly meets

May 22, 1848

Frankfurt assembly supports Prussia against Danes in Schleswig-Holstein

June 1848 - september 1848

Prussian Assembly Dissolved

december 5, 1848

Frankfurt Constitution completed

March 27, 1849

Frankfurt Constitution rejected by Prussia

April 21, 1849

Italian States

Palermo Revolt

January 12, 1848

First of the revolutions, well organized revolt in Palermo against rule from Naples.

King in Naples Grants constitution

February 10, 1848

Constitution Granted in Tuscany

February 17, 1848

Constitution Granted in Piedmont

March 4, 1848

Pope grants constitution

March 14, 1848

Milan Revolt: Five Glorious Days

March 18, 1848 - March 22, 1848

Revolt in Milan against the Austrian forces there, the austrian troops were forced to retreat.

Venice declared Republic

March 22, 1848

Venice rose up to reestablish the Venetian Republic and the possibility that the italian peninsula might be freed from foreign rule. This Nationalistic fervor forced Piedmont to join in the war against austria.

Italian troops defeat Austria

May 30, 1848

Austrians defeat Italian Army

July 24, 1848

Pope flees Rome

November 25, 1848

Roman Republic Established

February 9, 1849

Decisive defeat of piedmont by Austria

March 23, 1849

French Army lands in Papal States

April 24, 1849

Rome falls to France

June 30, 1849

Venice Surrenders

August 28, 1849