Civil War, Westward Expansion and Slavery

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Signing of the US Constitution

1787

3/5 clause, importation/migration of peoples, service of labor must be returned, importation banned in 1808, no changes until then

Emancipation Proclamation

1863

Issued by Abraham Lincoln January 1, 1863, following the battle of Antietam, this proclamation stated that all Confederate slaves would be free, and that Blacks would be able to fight in the Union Army. Granted that the Union won, these slaves that fought in the army would be "forever and henceforth free"

Civil War

Nullification Crisis

1828 - 1832

After an initial tariff on goods imported from Europe, Southern states started to nullify this act within their states, upset with high prices and worried it would affect their own trade of cotton with Europe. Eventually, the Federal Gov. lowered the tariff in 1832. Was a huge symbol for states' power.

Lincoln Election

1860

Civil War

1861 - 1865

Battle of Antietam

April, 1862

Maryland brutal, bloody, nobody won, first battle the Union did not lose, political cover for Lincoln to issue Emancipation Proc.

Battle of Vicksburg

1863

July 4, 1863, one of the decisive Union victories, North now controlled the Mississippi River and split the Confederacy in half.

Battle of Gettysburg

July 1863

3+4 Decisive Union victory, beginning of the end of the war, along with the Battle of Vicksburg

Battle of Appotomax

1865

April, 1865 Union victory. Lee surrenders. 5 days before Lincoln's assassination

Slavery

Northwest Ordinance

1787

Established North of Ohio River and West of Miss. as US territory, no slavery, created a de facto of the Ohio River between North and South territory

Cotton Gin

1793

invention Eli Whitney, made cotton producing much more effective, but did not limit the usage of slaves. MORE DEMAND!!

Missouri Compromise

1820

an agreement between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new, primarily Western territories. 36 degrees 30 minutes, used this as dividing free and slave states

Compromise of 1850

1850

Admitted CA as a free state, gave Utah and New Mexico as under popular sovereignty-- set the precedent
Fugitive Slave Law

Bleeding Kansas

1854

Border Ruffians and Abolitionists storm Kansas to vote to make it a slave/free state

Kansas/Nebraska Act

1854

Act repealed Missouri Compromise (1820), in that both states were considered free, and questioned the validity of the Compromise of 1850, and would be determined by popular sovereignty-- led to "Bleeding Kansas"

Dred Scott Decision

1857

Slave, Dred Scott lived in a free state, but Supreme court decided:
-Blacks are not citizens
-illegal to deprive citizens of property without due process of law
-Blacks have no rights the white man has to respect
Established popular sovereignty for new states

Harper's Ferry

1859

John Brown's plan to invade the South with armed slaves, attacked federal armory, Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged. Unsuccessful, lack of support and planning.

Westward Expansion

Mason-Dixon Line

1763 - 1767

Commissioned to mark territories and marked borders for PA, Delaware, West Virginia, and Maryland. Nothing to do with slavery

Lewis and Clark Expedition

1804 - 1806

an expedition sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore the northwestern territories of the United States. Trying to find the shortest route between the Missouri and Colombian River-- Corps of Discovery

Indian Removal Act

1830

authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.

Mexican Session

1848

Modern day CA, UT, NV, and parts of NM, CO, and AZ. Following Mexican American War (after Guadalupe Hidalgo)

Gold Rush

1848 - 1899

CA (1848-1850), Colorado (1853-1861), Klondike (1896-1899)

Fort Laramie

1851

Permission to access Indian land for Rail road building, but not interfere with land use. Extermination of buffalo

Gadsden Purchase

1853

Purchase of land from mexico that further established the present U.S.-mexico boundary

Homestead Act

1862

Passed in 1862 by Lincoln, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years, who was a man, and who made improvements

2nd Treaty of Fort Laramie

1868

End of Indian War, gives Black Hills for Indian use

Dawes Act

1887

Divided land into individual plots, took away communal living